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[中][ENG]台灣藝術永續的變革與挑戰

文:黃梓柔


從燈會認識活動永續


我是劇場人,也是永續顧問師,在擔任顧問師之前,我經歷技術劇場、藝術管理及大型節慶展演製作有二十多年,轉職擔任永續顧問師後,劇場界的友人跟企業客戶都笑我斜槓斜很大,兩邊都很驚訝永續是我現在的正職,但這一切都是源自於一場元宵燈會。


2012年台灣媒體掀起一波對大型節慶活動的反省浪潮,燈會首當其衝,媒體認為每年全台舉辦大大小小燈會加起來的預算金額高達上億,製作的花燈卻只有十多天的展期,結束後就變成一堆垃圾,十分浪費,不如將燈會的費用節省下來,改為學童的營養午餐更有意義。當時我在一間活動公司任職,公司正準備投標2013年中台灣元宵燈會,這波浪潮對公司提案而言無疑是個挑戰,因為燈會是燈藝師展現傳統技藝的舞台,如果燈會消失了,傳統技藝也將無法傳承,因此我們必須自證燈會是永續的才能回應媒體的質疑,但是該怎麼辦呢?


後來我無意間在新加坡「i Light Marina Bay」的網頁上發現主辦單位是參照英國國家標準BS 8901: Specification for a Sustainability Management System for Events的永續活動指引來籌辦的,並以成為亞洲最永續的燈節自許。我感到非常訝異,原來辦活動也有標準可以依循,更驚喜的是因為英國BS 8901受到國際活動產業的高度評價,促使國際標準化組織(ISO)在2012年6月發佈國際永續性活動管理的標準ISO 20121。於是在第三方驗證公司SGS與顧問公司的協助下,導入ISO 20121活動永續性管理系統,並藉以規劃2013年中台灣元宵燈會,更成功通過SGS驗證,成為ISO 20121全球「燈會」首例。


在舉辦永續活動的過程中,我見證了現場從堆積如山的垃圾,到有效分類回收上噸的資源廢棄物;一次性的文宣旗再製成可重複使用的環保袋;促進在地社區與弱勢族群參與的努力,讓活動得到更多肯定及媒體的好評,原來應對好活動的永續性議題是辦好活動的重要關鍵,這誘發了我對永續的興趣,也就此踏上永續之路。


十年前,台灣社會大眾對永續的認知度並不高,籌辦永續活動需要耗費相當多的時間與心力溝通議合,但是當時國際上許多藝文機構與政府單位早就已經如火如荼地在推動永續了,其中最知名也最重要的藝術永續推動者是英國的Alison Tickell,她在2006年創立Julie’s Bicycle,並在2008年發表全球第一本音樂產業的溫室氣體盤查報告書,恰巧英國倫敦市政府也在2008年提出《綠色劇場》計劃,邀集倫敦市的劇院採行環保節能的措施來減少碳排放,並承諾到2025年將倫敦的溫室氣體排放量從1990年的水平減少60%。於是創立不久的Julie’s Bicycle幸運地和公共部門有志一同,攜手合作推動英國藝文產業的永續變革,更逐步將影響力擴及其他國家。


2022北藝大藝術永續論壇—開幕儀式 Opening Ceremony of 2022 International Forum for Art and Sustainability by Taipei National University of the Arts(照片由國立臺北藝術大學提供Photo provided by Taipei National University of the Arts)


然而日益加劇的全球暖化,促使聯合國在2015年通過《巴黎協定》,訂出在2100年前將地球升溫控制在攝氏2度以內的目標,歐盟在2019年率先宣佈進入「氣候緊急狀態」(Climate Emergency),國際間不同藝文領域也開始成立產業級的氣候倡議組織並展開跨國、跨產業的合作。英國在2021年新冠疫情最嚴峻的時候發佈《劇場綠皮書》(Theatre Green Book)計劃,同年,全球發佈2050淨零路徑,歐美劇場界從被疫情敲響的氣候危機警鐘掀起一波反思,探討劇場所面臨的環境面、社會面與經濟面永續議題,思考如何更永續地進行展演製作。


在這波浪潮的推動下,2022年台灣藝文產業也開始發酵永續相關的討論與倡議行動,首先是國家兩廳院在2022年獲邀加入由比利時、法國、瑞典、克羅埃西亞、立陶宛、意大利、匈牙利、葡萄牙、斯洛維尼亞等國家,以及歐洲劇場協會(European Theatre Convention)和拉脫維亞里加工業大學(Riga Technical University)等機構發起成立的「STAGES永續劇場聯盟」(Sustainable Theatre Alliance for a Green Environmental Shift),希冀匯集國際表演藝術界的力量,共同面對生存環境的危機,並首度進行跨國永續實驗製作《寫給滅絕時代》。我也受兩廳院的委託,透過講座與工作坊的形式幫助同仁了解永續趨勢以及國際案例,並協助各部門盤點日常業務中的永續議題,進而歸納出兩廳院的永續方針與短、中、長期目標。


在輔導兩廳院的過程中,有感於同仁們還需要儲備更多永續相關的知識才能在日常作業中實踐永續,於是我返回母校國立臺北藝術大學拜訪陳愷璜校長,希望北藝大能協助藝術永續知識推廣與學術交流,利益藝文產業推動永續,獲得陳愷璜校長的高度支持並旋即拍板定案在2022年12月舉辦首屆藝術永續國際論壇,邀請國際藝術永續專家與實務工作者分享經驗,論壇活動獲得熱烈迴響,陳愷璜校長也宣示將連續舉辦三屆藝術永續國際論壇,以「倡議、實踐、推廣」三部曲,逐步推動藝術永續。


此外許多業界人士也認為藝文產業要永續,單單只有場館投入還不夠,需要表演團體及供應鏈也一起永續轉型,於是在眾人的協助推廣下以及自發性的行動,表演藝術聯盟、臺中歌劇院、山峸製作設計、無獨有偶工作室、閃亮亮戲劇服裝永續共生空間等也相繼加入藝術永續的戰隊中。我們更在因緣際會下結識台灣視覺藝術產業一群有相同理念的夥伴們,於是2022年10月視覺藝術聯盟、表演藝術聯盟、畫廊協會、文化法學會與國立臺北藝術大學宣示成立「台灣藝術永續聯盟」共同於台北藝博發佈「綠色宣言及行動計畫」,呼籲更多人參與藝術永續,表演藝術聯盟更借鏡英國展開台灣版《劇場綠皮書》計劃。


因此,2022年可謂是台灣藝術產業重要的藝術永續元年,從表演藝術到視覺藝術,從產業到校園,從國際到台灣,從台北到高雄,志同道合的夥伴們猶如磁鐵般開始串聯合作,不過產業界好不容易燃起的這一小股熱力與創意,若沒有公共部門及時加柴添薪恐難以為繼。藝文場館期望文化部能提出文化產業的淨零路徑,制定明確且一致的政策計劃帶領場館邁向淨零;表演團體則希望文化部能協助解決公用倉儲空間的需求,以利團隊製作物回收再利用,並提供經費補助,協助表團永續轉型。


2013中台灣元宵燈會 2013 Central Taiwan Lantern Festival (照片由文創技研有限公司提供 Photo provided by arTecture CO.,LTD)


2021年4月蔡英文總統宣示台灣2050淨零轉型目標後,2022年發佈「台灣2050淨零排放路徑及策略總說明」,2023年1月《氣候變遷因應法》在立法院三讀通過,確立台灣氣候治理法制化,並正式將「2050淨零排放目標」入法,文化部也在落實2050淨零轉型的政策趨動下,在2023年啟動兩項永續相關的採購案,其一是「112-113文化產業溫室氣體盤查及淨零指引研擬」委託專業服務案,該案預計在2024年5月底完成研擬適合台灣文化產業之淨零指引,並辦理重要表演藝術場館、博物館及電影院之溫室氣體盤查及能源健檢,提出可行之改善做法、預估經費與改善排序,於是國家兩廳院、臺中歌劇院及高雄衛武營等重要場館都在2023年陸續展開溫室氣體盤查作業。其二是「文化ESG先期政策推動計畫」藝文勞務採購案,計畫目的是為促進企業支持文化發展,藉由建立文化ESG論述、了解企業需求及意願、辦理公開倡議,並促成企業與文化合作標竿案例。


上述這兩個計畫案也反映出近年來在國際永續趨勢下,文化部門因過往文化統計僅止於收集財務治理面或活動成果的數據,例如收入支出、演出場次、觀眾人數等,從未統計過產業環境面的相關數據,也從未進行過溫室氣體盤查或碳足跡的計算,再加上缺乏永續與氣候治理的經驗與人才,因此政府文化部門單位、藝文場館、表演團隊等也普遍面臨永續轉型的專業知識不足、資金不足與人才缺乏等窘境,對於如何梳理藝文產業的永續議題、制定政策、發展計畫,帶動整個產業邁向永續之路,顯得挑戰重重。愈來愈多藝文團隊在尋求企業贊助時會面臨到企業提出的ESG需求,未來藝文團隊必須了解ESG並在經營與創作中落實,才能有機會與具有相同ESG價值信念的企業成為夥伴關係。


我們才剛起步不久,我們聚集了一些夥伴一起思考永續,但還沒有找到最好的解方,一切還在摸索中前進,不過我們會堅定地往前走,永續這條路一個人走的慢,一群人才能走的快又遠,十多年前曾有一位歐洲永續前輩跟我說她很少聽到亞洲在永續議題上發聲(”It’s very quiet there”),我希望能有更多夥伴加入我們,期待不久的將來大家能聽見亞洲的聲音。

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黃梓柔


現任茂識管理顧問有限公司顧問師、國家兩廳院永續顧問、台灣藝術永續聯盟理事、台北藝術大學藝術永續國際論壇協同策劃人及永續顧問。畢業於國立臺北藝術大學藝術行政與管理研究所,二十多年文化藝術及大型節慶活動策畫製作經驗,從事永續顧問已有七年資歷,致力於推動藝術永續及溫室氣體盤查、ISO 20121活動永續性管理系統、永續報告書等輔導工作。




Transformation and the Challenges of Arts Sustainability in Taiwan


Text: Merita Huang

Translator: Laura Chan


2023北藝大藝術永續論壇—開幕儀式 Opening Ceremony of International Forum for Art and Sustainability by National Taipei University of the Arts (照片由國立臺北藝術大學提供Photo provided by National Taipei University of the Arts)(照片由國立臺北藝術大學提供)


I am a theatre professional and a sustainability consultant. Prior to being a consultant, I had over twenty years of experience in technical theatre, arts administration and festival production. After becoming a consultant, my theatre colleagues and corporate clients were surprised by my multiple roles and how sustainability had become my career. It actually all began with a Lantern Festival.


In 2012, Taiwan’s media started a wave of reflection on large-scale festival events, with lantern festivals being the main focus. The media criticised the millions of dollars spent on the numerous lantern festivals held across Taiwan, considering this wasteful as the festivals lasted for merely a couple weeks and created large quantities of waste afterwards. It was suggested that the funds could have been better used to provide improved school lunches for children. During that time I was working for an events agency and the company was preparing to bid for the 2013 Central Taiwan Lantern Festival. This wave of criticism posed a challenge for our proposal because lantern festivals were a platform for lantern artists to showcase traditional craftsmanship. If the festivals were to disappear, these traditional skills would also be at risk of being lost. Therefore we had to prove that lantern festivals could be sustainable in order to address the media's concerns. But how could we achieve that? 


Eventually I stumbled upon the website of "i Light Marina Bay" in Singapore and discovered that the organisers had adopted sustainability guidelines based on the British Standard BS 8901: Specification for a Sustainability Management System for Events, and claimed to be the most sustainable light festival in Asia. I was surprised to learn that there were such standards for events, and how the BS 8901 was highly recognised by the international event industry, causing the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to release the ISO 20121 standard for sustainable event management in June 2012. With the assistance of third-party verification company SGS and other consulting firms, we implemented the ISO 20121 event sustainability management system for the 2013 Central Taiwan Lantern Festival, and became the first lantern festival worldwide to achieve ISO 20121 certification.


In the process of organising sustainable events, I witnessed how mountains of garbage were effectively recycled; how disposable banners were repurposed into eco-bags; how efforts were made to involve local communities and minority groups, garnering recognition and positive media feedback. I realised that addressing the issue of sustainability in events was crucial to their success, which sparked my interest in and pursuit of sustainability.


A decade ago, the general public in Taiwan had limited awareness of sustainability, and sustainable events required a significant amount of time and effort to coordinate. However, arts and cultural institutions as well as government agencies in other countries were already actively promoting sustainability. One of the most prominent advocates for art sustainability was Alison Tickell from the United Kingdom. She founded Julie's Bicycle in 2006 and published the world's first greenhouse gas inventory report for the music industry in 2008. Coincidentally, in 2008 the London city authorities also introduced the "Green Theatre" initiative, inviting theatres in London to implement eco-friendly and energy-saving measures to reduce carbon emissions, and made a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in London to 60% of the 1990 level by 2025. The newly founded Julie's Bicycle had the opportunity to collaborate with the public sector to drive sustainability in the UK's art industry and expand their influence to other countries as well.


The escalating global warming crisis had caused the United Nations to pass the Paris Agreement in 2015, with the target of keeping the Earth's temperature increase below 2 degrees Celsius by year 2100. In 2019, the European Union declared a "Climate Emergency”, and art sectors worldwide began forming industry-level climate advocacy organisations to engage in cross-national and cross-industry collaborations. In 2021, amidst the severe COVID-19 pandemic, the United Kingdom launched the Theatre Green Book initiative, and the global initiative of Net Zero by 2050 also emerged. Theatres in the West rode on the wave of reform prompted by the climate crisis and explored the environmental, social, and economic sustainability issues faced by theatres, seeking to conduct performances and stage productions in a more sustainable manner.


In the context of this global movement, in 2022 Taiwan’s art industry began to initiate discussions and advocacy for sustainability. The National Theater and Concert Hall (NTCH) was invited to join the "Sustainable Theatre Alliance for a Green Environmental Shift" (STAGES), founded by countries such as Belgium, France, Sweden, Croatia, Lithuania, Italy, Hungary, Portugal and Slovenia, as well as institutions like the European Theatre Convention and Riga Technical University in Latvia. The alliance aimed to gather the international performing arts community's strengths to collectively address the environmental crisis and embarked on its first transnational sustainable experimental production, A Play for the Living in a Time of Extinction. I was invited by NTCH to conduct lectures and workshops to help colleagues to understand sustainability trends and international cases. I also assisted various departments in assessing sustainability issues in their daily operations and consequently formulated NTCH's sustainability policies and their short, medium, and long term goals in this regard.


In the process of working for NTCH, I realised that industry workers needed to learn more about sustainability in order to incorporate it into their daily operations. Therefore I visited my alma mater, Taipei National University of the Arts (TNUA), and asked President Chen Kai-huang to let TNUA assist in facilitating academic exchanges on art sustainability to benefit the industry. President Chen wholeheartedly supported the idea and promptly agreed to host the inaugural International Forum for Art and Sustainability in December 2022. The forum invited international experts and practitioners in art sustainability to share their experiences and received enthusiastic feedback. President Chen subsequently hosted three consecutive editions of the forum which followed the protocol of "Advocacy, Practice, and Promotion" to gradually promote sustainability in the arts.



台灣藝術永續聯盟 Taiwan Art Sustainability Alliance (TASA)(照片由台灣藝術永續聯盟提供 Photo provided by TASA)


In addition, many industry professionals believed that for the arts industry to achieve sustainability, it was not enough for venues alone to be sustainable. Performing groups and the entire supply chain needed to undergo a transformation together. With the assistance of various parties, the Performing Arts Alliance, the National Taichung Theater, Ridge Studio, Puppet & Its Double, and Costume Sustainability Co-survive Place joined the league of art sustainability. We also met a group of like-minded partners from the visual arts industry in Taiwan, and in October 2022, the Association of the Visual Arts in Taiwan, Performing Arts Alliance, Taiwan Art Gallery Association, Taiwan Cultural Law Association, and TNUA jointly established the "Taiwan Art Sustainability Alliance”. They released the "Green Declaration and Action Plan" at Art Taipei, calling for participation in art sustainability, and the Performing Arts Alliance also took inspiration from the UK and initiated a Taiwanese version of the "Theatre Green Book" project.


Therefore, 2022 can be regarded as the seminal year for the sustainable development of Taiwan's art industry. From performing arts to visual arts, from industry to university campuses, from international to local level, like magnets, like-minded partners began to come together. However, the enthusiasm and creativity ignited in the industry could not be maintained without timely support from the public sector. Arts venues hoped that the Ministry of Culture could propose a clear and coherent plan for venues to reach net zero; performing arts groups also hoped that the Ministry could address the need for storage space to facilitate the recycling and reuse of production materials, and provide subsidies to support sustainable transformation.


In April 2021, President Tsai Ing-wen announced Taiwan's goal of achieving net-zero emissions by 2050 and in 2022 "Taiwan’s Pathway to Net-Zero Emissions in 2050" was published. In January 2023, the Climate Change Response Act passed its third legislative reading in the Legislative Yuan, establishing legal frameworks for climate governance in Taiwan and officially incorporating the "2050 Net Zero Emission Goal" into law. 


Motivated by the policies for the 2050 net-zero transition, the Ministry of Culture initiated two sustainability-related procurement projects in 2023. The first was the "112-113 Cultural Industry Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Net Zero Guidelines” procurement for professional services, which aimed to develop net-zero guidelines suitable for Taiwan's cultural industry by the end of May 2024, and to conduct greenhouse gas inventories and energy audits for important performing arts venues, museums, and cinemas, as well as to propose feasible improvements and provide budget estimates. Therefore, venues such as the NTCH, the National Taichung Theater, and the National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts started greenhouse gas inventory operations in 2023. The second project was the "Cultural ESG Policy Initiation Plan" for arts and cultural services procurement. The goal of this plan was to promote corporate support for cultural development by establishing cultural ESG theories, understanding corporate demands, conducting advocacy, and creating exemplary collaboration between corporations and the cultural sector.


The above two projects reflected how the cultural sector’s statistics were limited to financial and governance data or performance-related data such as income, expenses, number of performances, and attendance, as opposed to recent global sustainability trends. There had never been data on the industry's environmental impact, nor any inventory of greenhouse gas emissions or calculation of carbon footprints. In addition, there was a lack of experience and capability in sustainability and climate governance within government departments, arts venues, and performing arts groups. Therefore, these entities commonly faced challenges in terms of professional knowledge, fundraising, and human resources, which made it difficult for them to explore sustainable practices, formulate policies, develop plans, and drive the entire industry towards a sustainable path. More and more arts groups are encountering ESG demands from corporate entities when seeking sponsorships; in the future they will have to understand ESG and implement it in their operations and productions in order to establish partnerships with corporations sharing similar ESG values.


We are just at the beginning; we have gathered like-minded partners to think about sustainability, but have not yet found the best solution for the process of exploration. However, we shall persist -the path to sustainability is slow when walked alone, and we can only go fast and go far as a group. Over a decade ago, a European sustainability expert told me that she rarely heard Asian voices on sustainability issues, saying that ”it's very quiet there". I hope that more people and groups will join us so that in the future everyone will be able to hear voices from Asia.



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Merita Huang


Huang is a graduate of the Graduate Institute of Arts Administration and Management Taipei National University of the Arts (TNUA) and is currently a consultant at Mastery Management Consulting Co., Ltd. She is also sustainable consultant of the National Theater and Concert Hall, director of the Taiwan Art Sustainability Alliance, and co-curator and consultant of the International Forum for Art and Sustainability. With over twenty years of experience in arts and event production, she has been working as a sustainability consultant for the past seven years, focusing on promoting art sustainability, greenhouse gas inventories, the ISO 20121 event sustainability management system and sustainability reporting.

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