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[中][ENG] 舞蹈的體能訓練:訓練計劃的設計及應用

Strength and Conditioning in Dance – Application in Designing Training Programmes


舞動潛能

Optimizing Dancers’ Performance


舞蹈的體能訓練:訓練計劃的設計及應用


文:敖君龍


正如上一期對力量與體能訓練的介紹,舞者需要增強各種體能,以提高自己的舞蹈技巧和表現。這些身體上的改善對活躍的舞者,尤其是年輕的舞者,保持健康的狀態和在舞台上表演至關重要。如果沒有適當的體能訓練,舞者可能無法在密集的舞蹈課、訓練或表演的日程安排中保持強健的體魄。在本文中,我們將為您提供一些為舞者設計體能訓練時需要注意的地方。


照片由香港演藝學院舞蹈學院提供


無論是哪一種舞蹈風格,舞者表演時身體整體的參與都不可或缺。在設定體能訓練中的練習時,不應只進行針對身體某部分的訓練動作,而是應嘗試結合全身訓練,來模擬表演時的動作模式和速度。如上半身和下半身的動作可以分開訓練,或者作為一個單一的訓練動作(如使用重力袋進行深蹲上舉,圖上)來提高男性舞者在表現中舉起舞伴的能力。這種做法有助把訓練的運動模式轉移到實際的舞蹈環境中。然而,文獻中的另一個觀點是不應同時訓練舞蹈技巧和體能。從這個觀點出發,如果舞者不習慣負重的舞蹈動作,他們可以採用一般的力量訓練以提升體能。


漸進式超負荷(progressive overload)是指在我們的身體上,包括韌帶、肌腱、肌肉和骨骼上施加比平常更大的負荷或壓力。在設計一個有系統的訓練方案時,我們可以在方案中改變一些訓練變量,如強度/負荷、訓練量(更改訓練組數、重複次數等)和休息時間(改變訓練組之間的休息間隔),以便適當地配合舞者的身體能力。進展恰當與否取決於舞者在進行訓練時對動作的熟練程度或適應能力,以及恢復時間是否合適。我們應留意舞者提升體能的進度,以改變訓練強度和訓練量。


當舞者在繁忙的日程安排中沒有足夠的休息時間,要調節舞者體能所需的訓練量便有頗大挑戰性。基於這個原因,體能教練及教師還應了解舞者在日常訓練中的承受能力,並根據他們完成訓練的能力作出相應的調整。「沒有痛苦就沒有收穫」的錯誤觀念會影響舞者的思維方式,導致訓練過度,症狀包括訓練後需要較長時間恢復、失去動力或睡眠障礙等。如果一天內的課節太多,或者他們已感到疲憊不堪,可嘗試把體能訓練安排在舞蹈訓練之後,或者如上述般重新調整訓練的變量。


力量訓練在舞蹈訓練中十分常見,因為力量水平的提高可以改善舞者的整體運動效率。我們建議舞者應調整訓練變量來集中發展力量和耐力。根據訓練原則,低阻力、高重複次數(15-25次)的運動,加上短的休息間隔(通常從30秒到1分鐘不等)可以提高耐力;高阻力、低重複次數(1-6次)的運動,加上長的休息間隔(3-5分鐘)則可以提高力量。這些重量訓練方式有助舞蹈員在舞蹈表演期間實現高強度的活動能力和可持續的間歇性運動,而不會造成令舞者的肌肉變「粗壯」(bulking)。


此外,由於舞者使用極端重量訓練的機會不多,評估他們最大負荷並據此分配訓練動作的重量似乎甚有難度。較佳的確定訓練重量的方法,應是在訓練前的測試中,根據多次重複的最大重量(repetition maximum/RM,舞者在規定數量的訓練動作中能舉起的最大重量)來估計最大負荷(1RM)。這可以通過逐步增加重量直至極限,並達到一定的重複次數(如6RM,或力量訓練中的次數可以重複6次),便可以確定一個適合的訓練重量(詳情可以參考美國國家肌力及體能協會(National Strength and Conditioning Association, NSCA)或美國運動醫學會(American College of Sports Medicine, ACSM)的詳細測試方案)。除力量訓練外,還可單獨進行有氧體能訓練以改善心肺功能。心肺功能可以通過一般的有氧健身方法提高,如騎自行車、慢跑或游泳等。由於舞者在舞蹈表演中需要間歇性地移動,他們更可加入表演的動作於高強度間歇訓練(high-intensity interval training, HIIT)計劃當中。


舞者更應該盡可能將體能訓練納入他們的日程安排,建議舞者每週進行2-4次體能訓練,每次至少30分鐘,以提升他們的身體能力。在演出期間,則建議每週進行最少1-2次訓練,以維持舞者的體能水平。一個設計良好的訓練計劃需要定期審查和修改,但訓練動作及其動作模式應根據舞者的需要而修訂。


舞蹈的力量及體能訓練的目的,不是為了要將舞者的身體能力提高至極限,而是為了防止舞者受傷及支持他們的日常舞蹈訓練和舞台表現。這是一個與競技運動截然不同的概念,所以在舞蹈課以外的額外訓練需要謹慎處理,始終令舞者進步的力量及體能訓練所考慮到的應該是訓練的質量,而不是訓練量。


總結

  • 嘗試結合全身訓練來模擬跳舞時的動作模式。

  • 體能訓練計劃的進度應與舞者的能力相符,並在他們的日程中安排一個充裕的恢復期。

  • 高阻力、低重複次數(力量發展)和低阻力、高重複次數(耐力發展)的訓練對舞者來說是有益的,不會造成所謂的肌肉「粗壯」。

  • 建議舞者每週進行2-4次體能訓練,每次至少30分鐘,以發展他們的身體能力。在演出期間,則建議至少進行每週1-2次,以維持舞者的體能水平。


參考文獻

  1. American College of Sports Medicine, Riebe, D., Ehrman, J. K., Liguori, G., and Magal, M. (2018). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (Tenth edition.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.

  2. Baechle, T. R., Earle, R. W., and National Strength & Conditioning Association (U.S.). (2008). Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Leeds: Human Kinetics.

  3. Sato, N., Nunome, H., and Ikegami, Y. (2015). Kinematic analysis of basic rhythmic movements of hip-hop dance: Motion characteristics common to expert dancers. J Appl Biomech 31: 1–7.

  4. Williams, C., Gdovin J., Allen, C., Wilson, S., Cazás-Moreno, V., Ossenheimer, C., and Garner, J. (2016). Strength and Conditioning Considerations for Collegiate Dance. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 38: 88-95.



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敖君龍

香港演藝學院講師(舞蹈科學)、運動科學博士生及體能教練。他的研究興趣為舞蹈的體能訓練,並以此作為他博士論文的研究題目。他將生理學的知識及過去與不同運動項目的精英運動員的合作經驗,運用到他的教學及研究工作上。此外,他也是奧林匹克舉重、普拉提教練,能為舞者提供全面及多變的體能訓練。


 

Strength and Conditioning in Dance – Application in Designing Training Programmes


Text: Jake Ngo


Photo provided by The Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts School of Dance


As mentioned in the introduction of strength and conditioning in the previous issue, dancers face physical challenges and need to strengthen various fitness components to improve their dance technique and performance. These body improvements are crucial to enable physically active dancers, especially younger ones, to stay healthy and perform on stage. Without proper conditioning work, dancers may not be able to sustain their fitness in a schedule packed with intensive technique classes, training sessions, or performances. In this article, we are going to provide you with some ideas if you wish to devise conditioning sessions for dancers.


Full-body engagement is essential for dancers to create movements, regardless of dance style. When prescribing exercises in the training session, do not simply engage in isolated movements - instead, try incorporating full-body movements to specifically address movement patterns and velocities commonly performed when dancing. For example, upper and lower body movement can be trained separately or as a single exercise (such as power bag squat with press up, image above) to improve lifting ability for male dancers in partnering work. This practice helps to transfer loaded movement patterns to the context of dance. However, another perspective from the literature is that technical skills and physical fitness should not be trained together. Taking this point of view, teachers can develop dancers’ physical fitness in a separate supplementary session as normal strength training if dancers are not accustomed to loaded movement specifications.


Progressive overload is defined as placing a greater load or stress than normal on our body, including ligaments, tendons, muscles, and bones. When designing a systematic training programme, we can manipulate variables within the programme, such as intensity / load, the volume of work (by the number of sets, multiple repetitions performed…), and rest periods (resting intervals between sets) to better align with dancers’ physical abilities. Proper progression depends on how skilful or adaptable the dancer is at conducting a particular training or movement along with a well-paced recovery period. The rate of improvement in a dancer’s fitness performance dictates the increase in training intensity and volume.


It is sometimes challenging to address the appropriate amount of volume needed to elicit a stimulus for dancers, especially when they might not have enough rest time in their busy schedules. For this reason, teachers should also be aware of a dancer’s ability to tolerate training sessions in a daily setting and make adjustments based on their capacity to complete the training accordingly. False beliefs such as “no pain no gain” can affect the way dancers think and may ultimately lead to over-training. Symptoms such as delays in recovery from training, loss of motivation, or sleep disturbance can indicate if the dancer is over-trained. If there are many classes in the day or they are feeling tired out, try to put the conditioning session at the end of their training or re-adjust the training variables as mentioned above.


Strength training is common in dance conditioning, considering an increase in strength level can improve the overall movement efficiency of dancers. They are recommended to develop their strength and endurance by, again, adjusting training variables. According to training principles, a low resistance, high repetition (15-25 repetitions) exercise with a short resting interval (usually ranging from 30 seconds to 1 minute) can improve endurance, while a high resistance, low repetition (1-6 repetitions) exercise with a longer resting interval (3-5 minutes) can improve strength. These weight training modalities are good for enabling intense work and sustainable, intermittent movement during dance performances without causing muscle “bulking”.


In addition, as dancers usually do not lift heavy weights, assessing the maximum weight lifted and assigning load based on that does not seem viable. A better approach to determine load could be based on a multiple repetition maximum (RM, the maximum weight a dancer can lift for a defined number of exercise movements) test in the pre-training session to estimate the maximum load (1RM). This can be done by progressively increasing weight and performing the exercise until a certain number of repetitions (e.g. 6RM, or maximally performed six repetitions for strength training) is attained. After that, the exercise load for training can be safely determined. You may refer to a detailed testing protocol from the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) or the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Aside from strength work, aerobic conditioning work can be implemented separately to improve cardiovascular fitness. This can be improved through general aerobic fitness methods such as cycling, jogging, or swimming, using high-intensity interval training (HIIT) to match performance patterns, as dancers need to move intermittently during dance performances.


Dancers should also fit the conditioning work into their schedule when possible. It is suggested that dancers should conduct conditioning work 2-4 times a week for at least 30 minutes to develop their fitness capacity. When it comes to performance periods, it is recommended to reduce conditioning work to 1-2 times a week to maintain dancers’ fitness levels. A properly designed training programme may need to be reviewed and revised periodically, but training exercises or movement patterns can be routinely changed or remain the same to suit a dancer’s specific needs.


The purpose of strength and conditioning in dance is not to maximize the fitness component but to prevent injury and support dance training and stage performance. This is something quite different from competitive sports and this additional training on top of technique classes needs to be handled with care. Do always think about the quality of training, not the quantity.



References

  1. American College of Sports Medicine, Riebe, D., Ehrman, J. K., Liguori, G., and Magal, M. (2018). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (Tenth edition.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.

  2. Baechle, T. R., Earle, R. W., and National Strength & Conditioning Association (U.S.). (2008). Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Leeds: Human Kinetics.

  3. Sato, N., Nunome, H., and Ikegami, Y. (2015). Kinematic analysis of basic rhythmic movements of hip-hop dance: Motion characteristics common to expert dancers. J Appl Biomech 31: 1–7.

  4. Williams, C., Gdovin J., Allen, C., Wilson, S., Cazás-Moreno, V., Ossenheimer, C., and Garner, J. (2016). Strength and Conditioning Considerations for Collegiate Dance. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 38: 88-95.



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Jake Ngo

Lecturer (Dance Science) at The Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts, PhD student in sports science, and certified strength and conditioning coach. His research interest is strength and conditioning in dance, which also became the research topic of his doctoral study. He applies knowledge of physiology and previous experience with elite athletes in various sports to his teaching and research work. In addition, he is also an Olympic weightlifting coach and Pilates instructor, providing dancers with a comprehensive and flexible conditioning experience.



本欄合作伙伴:香港演藝學院舞蹈學院

This column is in collaboration with: School of Dance, The Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts