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[中][Eng]舞蹈科學研究

文:余曉彤


舞蹈科學研究旨在探討影響舞蹈表現的因素、特定舞種的技術特徵、記錄並分析教學的經驗和傳統,更有效、更健康地全方位改進舞蹈訓練。通過基於實證的教學和應用,使舞者能夠優化表現,享受更成功、長壽的事業生涯。若我們視舞者為藝術性的運動員,藝術感染力的發展就必須建立在一個健康、具有充足能力的身心狀態基礎上。

 

舞蹈科學中的研究設計是甚麼樣的?


舞蹈科學通常引用運動科學研究中的理論和原則,修改及調整至適用於舞蹈中。根據主題的不同,應用合適的研究設計。描述性設計通常關注訓練背景、傷患歷史等方面,提供對特定現象的詳細說明。橫斷設計在單一時間點上檢查特定變數,例如試圖分析不同舞種的舞者在專業訓練第一年開始時的體能水平。若使用縱向設計,則可追蹤一群舞者幾年,深入了解訓練如何影響體能的變化。研究人員將可透過這些數據,調整訓練的負荷或內容,更有效地達到期望的結果。而相關性的設計聚焦於兩個或多個變數之間的關係,例如調查關節超伸與受傷機率之間的聯繫。這些資料能為干預研究做好準備,繼而評估專門為患有關節超伸的舞者訂立的新訓練計劃或預防受傷策略的成效。


研究舞蹈科學的方法有哪些?


研究通常會利用一系列量化和質化方法。儘管這兩種方法通常單獨使用以探索舞蹈不同的特徵,但它們的含義是緊密相關的。量化研究旨在精確測量、量化和統計分析變數,以理解和探索例如生物力學、生理反應、傷患率或表現等的指標。數據收集的常用工具有運動捕捉儀器、測力板、心率監測器或可量化的問卷調查等。利用統計學分析和理解所收集到的數據,識別出不易看到的模式、趨勢和關係,本著科學的原則客觀地提出改變。而質化研究方法通常更有利於探索主觀的經驗,用於了解舞者的信念、影響他們表現的不同問題。例如探討專業舞者自身經歷疼痛的體驗,面對傷患的態度,或者對自己身體形象的看法。最常見的質化研究方法是透過訪談收集主觀經驗,更深刻地了解複雜的細節。


照片由香港演藝學院舞蹈學院提供


舞蹈科學研究範例


以下兩個例子是在香港近期進行的研究:

 

1)「 中國古典舞者慢性踝關節不穩的患病率」

與芭蕾舞或現代舞等舞種相比,針對中國舞的研究相對較少。此橫斷性的研究旨在評估105位中國舞者中慢性踝關節不穩(CAI)的患病率,並將CAI的影響與足部功能相關聯。透過收集兩份問卷的數據,發現28%的中國舞者患有CAI。多數的情況都是單側不穩定,導致舞者遭受明顯的疼痛和較差的生活質量。該研究的啟示凸顯了普及預防傷患教育的重要性,適時尋求醫學建議的價值,並提出腳踝的力量訓練是減少CAI患病率的關鍵。

 

2)「表演藝術行業的學生和教師心理健康的跨文化案例研究」

此研究是在2019冠状病毒疫情後,與香港、澳洲和英國的表演藝術院校合作進行的。研究人員採用混合方法設計(結合定量和質化方法),追蹤有類似經歷的學生和教師。通過問卷客觀地測量他們的壓力、倦怠(burnout)和動力, 同時採訪了參與者,更深入地理解他們的想法和經歷。結果顯示高壓力水平和成就感降低可能會使學生面臨倦怠的風險,教師的自我感覺能幹但在自主性方面受挫,而疫情也間接帶來了新的教學方法。

 

其他研究方向分別著眼於人才天賦發展——早期專項化的風險和益處、表演藝術事業成功人士的特質和經歷;生活方式——營養的重要性、習慣和成癮的影響、休息和恢復的影響;身心學研究——記錄實踐者的經驗和智慧;以及舞蹈對健康的影響——舞蹈如何改善兒童和青少年、殘疾和患病人群以及老年人的健康(請參閱「觸動」舞蹈計劃)等。

 

如何閱讀研究論文?


研究論文通常以摘要開始,旨在給讀者一個概述,解釋研究問題、方法、並凸顯關鍵的發現。正文的部分通常以引言開始,講述論文試圖研究的問題,也有文獻綜述,旨在幫助讀者了解現有的相關文獻已覆蓋的知識和空缺,強調此項研究的相關性和重要性,並闡明了預期的結果和對該領域的貢獻。

 

接下來是方法論的部分,包含有關研究設計、數據收集過程和分析方法的詳細訊息,也會說明與參與者的安全和知情同意相關的道德倫理考量。結果部分講述主要的發現,在討論部分對結果進行解釋,並試圖理解其影響和含義。最後,結論會總結主要要點,而參考文獻列表(就像本文下面的列表一樣)則為您提供了有關研究主題的更多資源。

 

您一直對舞蹈訓練的某個方面感到好奇嗎?嘗試構思一個研究問題,並讓我們知道您選擇它的原因,在下方鏈結與我們分享。






參考文獻:

Chui, V. W. T., Tong, A. H. K., Hui, J. Y. N., Yu, H. H. T., Yung, P. S. H., & Ling, S. K. K. (2022). Prevalence of ankle instability in performers of Chinese classical dance: a cross-sectional study of 105 Chinese dancers. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 8(3), e001413.


Hong Kong Jockey Club Dance Well Project https://jcdancewell.hkapa.edu/knowledge-hub/


International Association of Dance Medicine and Science conference, 32nd Annual Conference. October 28-31, 2022 Limerick, Ireland https://iadms.org/


Redding, E. (2019). The Expanding Possibilities of Dance Science. In H. Thomas & S. Prickett (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Dance Studies (pp. 56-67). London and New York: Routledge.


Ruemper, A., & Watkins, K. (2012). Correlations between general joint hypermobility and joint hypermobility syndrome and injury in contemporary dance students. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 16(4), 161-166.

 

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余曉彤(MSc, MFA)

 

香港演藝學院講師(舞蹈科學)

余氏擁有豐富的芭蕾舞背景和經驗,近年將重心投放在舞蹈科學研究在舞蹈訓練中的應用和實踐,全方面關注舞者的身心健康,希望透過教育和知識普及,幫助舞者預防傷患並提升表現。

 




Dance Science Research

Text: Heidi Yu


Dance Science is an exciting expanding multidisciplinary field of research and study. It aims to investigate dance practice in its broadest sense, examining areas such as the factors that influence performance and the technical particularities of specific dance genres. Dance Scientists also survey extensively practitioner wisdom and the received tradition, in order to design more efficient, healthier holistic approaches to improve dance practice. All of these contribute to a deeper understanding of what a dancer could (and should) do differently to move beyond the uncritical repetition of conventional beliefs and practices. When we look at dancers as artistic athletes, being fit and healthy to meet the demands of training and performance becomes a non-negotiable foundation for artistic development. Through evidence-based teaching and practical applications of Dance Science, researchers and practitioners work together to enable dancers to optimize their performance, and enjoy long and successful careers.


How does research design look like in Dance Science?


Dance Scientists often make use of theories and principles referenced from Sport Science research, modified and adapted to fit a dance context. Different research designs can be applied, depending on the topics. Descriptive design usually looks at demographics, training backgrounds, injuries or performance history, which provides a detailed account of a particular phenomenon under study. Cross-sectional design involves the examination of a specific variable at a single point in time. For example, this would be a suitable design for researchers trying to analyse the fitness levels of dancers, from different dance styles, at the beginning of their first year of professional training.

 

Using a longitudinal design, on the other hand, would help the researchers track the changes in the physical condition of a group of dancers over several years, providing a better understanding of how training affects physical condition. With this data, the researchers would be able to adjust the load or content of training sessions to more efficiently achieve the desired outcomes—for example, improved strength and power.

 

Another approach, correlational design, focuses the relation between two or more variables. An example of this could be an investigation of the connection between hypermobility and the occurrence of injuries, revealing insightful potential associations between these factors. This would allow researchers to prepare intervention studies to assess the impact of new training programs or injury prevention strategies specifically tailored for hypermobile dancers.


What are the methods employed in researching Dance Science?


Research currently being undertaken draws upon a range of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches. Although both approaches are typically used separately, to explore different features of dance, their implications are often deeply interrelated and interconnected.


Quantitative research aims to precisely measure, quantify, and statistically analyze variables to understand and explore specific phenomena in dance, such as biomechanics, physiological responses, injury rates, or performance metrics. Devices like motion capture instruments, force plates, heart rate monitors, or surveys with quantifiable scales are common tools for data collection. Statistical techniques such as correlation, regression, and analysis of variance are then applied to understand these data and draw pertinent conclusions. Quantitative approaches help researchers to identify patterns, trends, and relationships within the data that may not be readily evident prior to the analysis, fostering a more objective understanding of the scientific principles underlying dance practice.


Qualitative research methods, on the other hand, are typically more advantageous for explorations of lived, subjective experiences. When Dance Scientists enlist qualitative research methods, they are usually concerned with understanding the beliefs of dancers, the different narratives conditioning their practice, or other personal concerns. For example, exploring how professional dancers experience pain, their attitudes when facing an injury, or the perceptions of their own body images. One of the most common qualitative methods is the interview, which allows the researcher to gather a nuanced and deep knowledge of the complexities involved in subjective experiences.


Dance Science research examples


A a vibrant and fast-moving field of study, and Dance Science research continues to evolve to provide ever more relevant insights to enhance dance practice in its different modalities. Below are two examples of recent studies in Hong Kong:


1)      “Prevalence of ankle instability in performers of Chinese classical dance: a cross-sectional study of 105 Chinese dancers”

As Dance Science originated in the West, Chinese Dance has been a relatively less exposed to research, especially when compared with disciplines like ballet or contemporary dance. This study aimed to determine and assess the prevalence of chronic ankle instability (CAI) in Chinese dancers and correlate the impact of CAI with foot function. Data was collected using two questionnaires, and results showed that CAI was seen in 28% of Chinese dancers. Unilateral instability was observed in most cases, which caused dancers to suffer significantly greater pain and poorer quality of life. Implications from this research highlighted the importance of education on injury prevention, as well as the value of proper medical advice. It also determined that ankle strength and conditioning are essential to reduce the prevalence of CAI.


2)      “A cross-cultural case series on the psychological wellbeing of performing arts students and teachers”This study was conducted after the COVID-19 pandemic in collaboration with leading national performing arts institutions in Hong Kong, Australia, and the UK. Researchers developed a case series study that followed students and teachers with similar experiences. Using a mixed-method design (a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods), researchers sought to objectively measure stress, burnout and motivation through questionnaires. At the same time, they interviewed participants to better understand their thoughts and experiences. The results of this research project showed that high stress levels and a reduced sense of accomplishment may put students at risk of burnout, that it may make teachers feel competent but frustrated in their autonomy, and that the pandemic led to new approaches to teaching, marked by a redefinition of priorities.


Other research directions in the field look at issues like talent development—the risks and benefits of early specialization, characteristic traits and experience that contribute to a successful performing arts career—; influence of lifestyle—importance of nutrition, impacts of habits and addiction, rest and recovery—; somatic practice—documenting the embodied practitioner wisdom—; dance for health—how dance can serve as a means to improve health in populations like children and teenagers, people with disabilities and diseases, and the elderly (see HK Dance Well project).


How to read a research paper?


Like in any scientific discipline, Dance Scientists often publish their research and findings in academic research papers. Being the products of an advanced field of study, these papers can seem somewhat daunting on a first encounter, but they contain precious insights that make them worthwhile reads. In this section, you can find some basic information to help you approach and understand these documents.


A research paper usually begins with an abstract, a brief summary designed to give the reader an overview of the study, explaining the research question, the methodology of the research project, and highlighting its key findings.


After the abstract, we find the body of the research paper. This part often starts with an introduction, which identifies the research gaps and the research questions that the paper seeks to study. Often, there is also a literature review, designed to help the reader contextualize the research project presented by positioning it within the existing literature—previous related research works. These two sections, the introduction and literature review, highlight the relevance and significance of the proposed study, and elucidate the intended outcomes and contributions to the field.


Next, there is a methodology section, which contains details on the research design, the data collection process, and the methods for its analysis. Ethical considerations, relative to the well-being and informed consent of participants, are detailed here.


The results section shows the key findings, and the discussion interprets them and tries to understand their implications. Finally, a conclusion summarizes the main takeaways, and a reference list (like the one below this article) provides you with resources to find out more about the topic researched.


Have you always been curious about a certain aspect of your dance training? Try formulating a research question and let us know what made you choose it. Share with us here: Link.






Additional resources and references

Chui, V. W. T., Tong, A. H. K., Hui, J. Y. N., Yu, H. H. T., Yung, P. S. H., & Ling, S. K. K. (2022). Prevalence of ankle instability in performers of Chinese classical dance: a cross-sectional study of 105 Chinese dancers. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 8(3), e001413.


Hong Kong Jockey Club Dance Well Project https://jcdancewell.hkapa.edu/knowledge-hub/


International Association of Dance Medicine and Science conference, 32nd Annual Conference. October 28-31, 2022 Limerick, Ireland https://iadms.org/


Redding, E. (2019). The expanding possibilities of dance science (pp. 56-67). London and New York: Routledge.


Ruemper, A., & Watkins, K. (2012). Correlations between general joint hypermobility and joint hypermobility syndrome and injury in contemporary dance students. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 16(4), 161-166.

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