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[中][ENG]人間晚晴何處有 懷民雲門此中尋 —淡水河畔雲門劇場林懷民隨談漫記 Talking about Cloud Gate Dance Theatre with Lin Hwai-min

 

 1. 林懷民攝於淡水雲門劇場日光平台上。

Lin Hwai-Min at the Sunbeam Platform.

攝影Photo Credit: 劉振祥 Liu Chen-hsiang

 

沿著淡水河畔步道邊走邊談,林懷民很明確地說出他現時的心境﹕「爭取盡快退休,應是我目前最大心願。這並不存在接班人的問題,基本上來說雲門從前年12月29日在八里那邊將所有東西裝好,再運到淡水這邊新的雲門劇場,到去年1月4日,大家正式在辦公桌上放上名牌工作,到今天剛好是一年。當時除了第一個月有點亂,很快一切都已踏入軌道,我們的團隊真的很利害,我今年已六十九歲,中國人的算法甚至可說已是七十歲了,體能健康狀況,自己是知道的,應放手讓他們來做了。當然我是明白的,我能早一點退,還可用顧問的身份,發揮一些作用,越遲退能發揮的作用便越少了。」

 

Walking along the Tamsui River in Tamsui district in New Taiwan City with Lin Hwai-min, the founder of Cloud Gate Dance Theatre of Taiwan, Lin comments “My wish is to retire now. It is not a matter of finding the perfect successor. Our team is really brilliant, a year has passed since the move from Bali to Tasmsui, where the Cloud Gate Theater was completed on 29 December 2014 and everyone officially started to work on 4 January 2015.  Apart from chaos in the first month, everything ever since has run smoothly. I’m sixty-nine years old now, but according to the ancient Chinese calendar, it could be said that I'm seventy years old this year. I’m fully aware of my physical capacity. It is about time for me to let go and allow others to take over. Indeed, I wish this day would come sooner rather than later - even after I retire, I can continue to work as a consultant for the company - but the later I step down the less I can do.”

 

退休洗碗和搞舞目的

Cleaning and Dancing

 

退休後最想做的事情是甚麼呢?

 

作為雲門舞集的創辦人、靈魂人物,現時的藝術總監林懷民這樣說﹕「說真的,我最希望是能留在家裏洗碗呀!那是我三十五歲那年才領悟到的事;因為洗碗是我一個人便能完成的事,而且是馬上便以看得出來,我是擦得乾乾淨淨的,是能夠做到最好的;再有空的時候,我就希望能夠擦地板,也是我一個人便可以將地板擦得乾乾淨淨,做得最好。那和搞舞蹈會很不一樣,舞蹈我一個人做不來,也難做得最好。」

 

但大家都知道「林懷民」這個名字,幾乎便是「台灣舞蹈」的代名詞,搞舞蹈應是他人生中最重要的事情啊!剛於去年落成啟用的雲門劇場,更應是他現時最關心,甚至是退休後仍不易放下的事呀!

 

林懷民望著淡水河對岸在黃昏後漸漸出現的點點暗淡燈光,那曾是雲門舞集的家所在的八里,語調平靜且平緩地說﹕「對!雲門劇場的落成,應是我舞蹈生涯中的一個成果,但和我從事舞蹈藝術一樣,那祇是一個手段,來作為與社會溝通的橋樑,我祇是橋樑的一口螺絲釘。如果舞蹈的目的祇是藝術的追求,那麼,我很早便答應去歐洲做藝術總監,歐洲的社會很明顯地更適合我去追求舞蹈的藝術,歐洲的土壤確是很不一樣,但那並非我的目的啊!我去了歐洲或許在舞蹈的藝術上會很有成果,但離開了我生長的土壤,便完全達不到我的目的了!」

 

What does Lin Hwai-min want to do most in retirement?

 

The founder and Artistic Director of Cloud Gate Dance Theatre, as well as the soul of the Company, Lin Hwai-min comments, “To be honest, I’d like to stay home and wash dishes! Something I realized when I was thirty-five is that dishwashing is a solitary activity where you can see the results of your hard work immediately, and if that doesn’t take up all my time, I’ll mop the floor as well. Like washing dishes, polishing the floor to tip-top shape can be done alone, single-handedly. It’s different from making a dance work, which I cannot do alone – in dance it’s hard to achieve the best results alone.”

 

No one can deny that the name – ‘Lin Hwai-min’ could be a synonym for ‘Dance in Taiwan’. Hence, making dance must be the most important thing in Lin’s life! His utmost concern nowadays and perhaps even after his retirement, one can imagine, must be the newly inaugurated Cloud Gate Theater.

 

Lin gazes across to the Bali district on the opposite bank of the Tamsui where the Company previously had its home at the dim lights beginning to appear at dusk. He calmly says, “The vision of Cloud Gate Theater is to serve as a bridge to connect art and society, and I think of myself as one of the bolts of this bridge. In the early days, I realized that perhaps I could achieve the greatest success in dance by going to Europe, but once I left the soil of my hometown, I wouldn’t be able to achieve this goal.”  In Lin’s view, besides aesthetic achievement, it is important for a dancer to have a wider perspective on dance, to additionally think about the function of dance in society.

 

接通社會得道者多助

Connecting Society

 

很顯然地林懷民作為一個舞者所追求的,是較舞蹈藝術更廣、更闊的,是舞蹈在社會上所發揮的功能,亦正是雲門舞集不時會舉辦有數以萬計、甚至十萬計觀眾的戶外大型演出的其中一個原因。一般人都會認為這是普及舞蹈藝術的策略,但林懷民看得更深切些,他說﹕「這些大型戶外演出,難度更大,挑戰更大,原因是有各種不同觀眾,大多反應直接,祇能將最好的表演拿出來,讓每一個人都被吸引,全神定睛觀看才成,不然很快氣氛便會散亂,所以做戶外大型演出要花更大的精力,演出的要求會更高;但亦因為這樣,雲門的橋樑才能接通社會,今日雲門劇場能夠成為事實,便是因為雲門接通了社會,得到了社會各方的回報,社會上有很多人支持,那可不是我一個人可以做得成的事。」

 

確實,現時在淡水的雲門劇場,是2009年採用「促參法」(促進民間參與公共建設法),與台北縣政府(今新北市政府)簽約,由政府無償付出土地,「雲門」出資興建,每年由「雲門」交付一定的租金給政府,換取的是四十年園區的營運權,期滿後可再續十年的方式。「促參法」原是為民間企業投資興建公共建設而設,其中制訂了限制、評估、審議等條文來防止弊端,並非是協助藝文團體的法案。雲門應是台灣首個採用此法案取得官家土地使用權的藝文團體,劇場落成後在此法案的轄制下能否成功運作,是讓人懸念之事,但興建過程已遇上不少問題。

 

不過,林懷民回憶這個過程已很心平氣和,他憶述著說:「2008年的2月11日,農曆大年初五凌晨一時許的大火吞噬了雲門位於八里烏山頭的鐵皮屋排練場,到去年4月劇場正式運作,前後經過七年多,最初以為兩三年便可將劇場蓋好。其實,那還虧雲門董事們的奔走,和找得設計師黃聲遠與田中央聯合建築師事務所的參與,才能較順利地完成。」

 

其實,單是要取得建築執照就用了兩年時間,要按「促參法」的法案要求來撰寫計劃、要了解法規、和政府相關單位溝通、協調,終得以正式動土,進行引水、開路,要設法解決將建材從山腳運送到小山坡的困難,還須與當地鄰里住戶、文史團體溝通等,事事都要時間。

 

時間以外,建費何來更為重要,對此,林懷民看似全不緊張,他說:「興建的費用便全來自社會,從各方募捐而來的,共計有6.6億台幣…..」在雲門劇場「日光平台」入口通道旁,一幅十六公尺長,帶有香氣的老檜木壁板,很工整地將4,155筆捐款的機構及個人姓名銘刻其上,變成長長一塊銘謝木壁,也就成為紀錄雲門得道者多助的印記!

 

Consequently, Cloud Gate Dance Theatre frequently organizes huge outdoor performances to reach out to thousands upon thousands of people.  Even though most might think that organizing such large scale outdoor performances is a strategy for popularizing dance, Lin emphasizes, “To organize such performances is much more challenging and difficult than performing in the theater. Because the diverse audiences come with different expectations, their responses are more spontaneous. To capture the attention of these audiences outdoors, dancers must use a huge amount of energy to bring out their best in performance. Only because of this can the bridges of Cloud Gate connect to the society, and can Cloud Gate Theatre be possible. We received support from various sectors and many people in the society. I couldn’t have achieved such it on my own.”

 

In fact, the Cloud Gate Theatre development made use of the Act of Promotion of Private Participation in Infrastructure Projects (B.O.T), and signed a contract with the New Taipei City Government in 2009 that provides the right to use the public land for the running of its theater on the site for forty years with the condition that it provides its own building funds.  Every year, Cloud Gate pays only a fixed amount of rent to the city government, afterward, the agreement can be renewed for another ten years. The B.O.T is designed to promote engagement in public development by private corporations; hence there are restrictive rules, evaluations, and resolutions to prevent corruption that might not be appropriate for cultural organizations.  Moreover, Cloud Gate is the first cultural organization awarded this right and it is very concerned about whether it can successfully operate under these conditions since it already encountered many difficulties during the building process.

 

Lin recalled the background of the newly inaugurated Cloud Gate Theater Complex, “At 1am on 11 February 2008, a fire destroyed Cloud Gate Dance Theatre’s iron-roofed rehearsal studio located in the Bali district. At first, I thought it would only take three or four years to rebuild, but it turned out to be longer than I thought.  It took a total of seven years for completion. Thankfully, the Cloud Gate Board of Directors appointed the architect Huang Sheng-Yuan of Fieldoffice Architects to design the complex.”

 

In fact, it was not anticipated that it would take two years to obtain a building permit. According to the B.O.T contract, the organization is required to provide construction documents. To do so, the Cloud Gate Theater team needed to spend time to gain a thorough understanding of the regulations in order to communicate and coordinate with relevant governmental departments. Up until its official groundbreaking, there were many logistical difficulties to resolve such as building a conveyance system for water, constructing a pathway to transport all the building materials up the hill, also communicating with local residents and the historical and cultural organizations.  All these consumed time.  Besides the pressure of time, in building such a theater complex, financial considerations were often a major concern, but these didn’t seem to stress Lin, he gratefully commented, “The total cost of the building of NTD$660 million came from donations from various sectors of society in Taiwan and abroad.” At the entrance of the theater there is a sixteen-meter long old Taiwan Hinoki Cypress wooden plaque named the Sunbeam Platform that is engraved with the names of the 4,155 individual and corporate donors; the fragrant wood perfumes the surroundings, while the unique board acknowledges the contributions that made the theater complex possible.

 

 

新建劇場融合老房子

An Integrated Architecture: The New Theater Merges with the Old House

 

雲門劇場現時所在的淡水地段(中正路一段六巷36號),沉澱著深厚的歷史,劇場的西南方,是1886年劉銘傳興建的滬尾砲台,現仍存有四台大砲;劇場後面綠草綠樹如茵,那可是已有九十七年歷史,於日治時期興建的台灣首個哥爾夫球場。至於劇場本體主要分為兩大部份,舊建築是建於1960年的中央廣播電台淡水分台的大樓,那原是冷戰時期,作為對大陸廣播的發射基地,2007年遷至淡水中正路後,該棟兩層高的老房子便成為「紀念性」的建築物。該棟房舍內部無柱阻隔,高眺四咪的空間,用作排舞正好。

 

不過,此兩層高的老房子已被審訂為歷史性文物建築,不能拆掉,在這種情況下林懷民便與建築設計師齊齊為新蓋的劇場想方設法,最後採用的方案,也就是現時大家見到的,將樓高六層的新劇場蓋在老房子後面,與老房子之間保留著一道頗寬敞的通道,上蓋著透光玻璃,讓外邊的陽光透入。老房子的兩層空間改建成為兩個黑盒小劇場,供排練及小型演出用,最低層(B2)是小劇場1,作為存放道具、服裝的「儲藏區」和「佈景工廠」,接待處,演職員的出入口,和辦公室; B1層則是小劇場2,三個後台化妝室及辦公室;一層是供展覽用的「藝廊」,和辦公室;二、三、四層是大劇場的舞台、觀眾席,和化妝間,四層的頂層還有靜思佛堂。

 

參觀當日,「藝廊」仍在展出「劉振祥的雲門風景攝影展」,展出與雲門合作了二十七年的劉振祥為雲門留下的珍貴影像,包括2008年排練場大火後全體雲門人的大合照。全天開放的是新舊建築以一木製大平台相連的「日光平台」,寬大的「日光平台」正好覆蓋在老房子之上,在大劇場內拉開布縵便是可外觀的綠色窗玻璃,能透過「日光平台」遠眺淡水河岸和對岸的八里,也就是雲門曾駐紮了十六年,已被無情之火燒掉的烏山頭的鐵皮屋排練場舊駐地。

 

「中廣」老房子門楣上方仍保留著「莊敬自強」字跡,那是1971年台灣退出聯合國政府提出的口號,是七、八十年代台灣公家機構常見的精神標語,留下來正好見證了那段對台灣來說並不好受的歷史。至於老房子前邊原有的大型噴水池已拆掉,變成一片傾斜有如浪湧的綠草坪,而位於老房子正門入口的三合土走道和停車場,可變身為戶外環境劇場的舞台,綠草坪便成為可讓最多1,500名觀眾蓆地而坐的觀眾席。為此,連同新建的大劇場,兩個舊房子內可供排練的小劇場,合共便有四個演出場館了。

 

雲門劇場的核心大劇場,雖然最多祇有450座位,但舞台區的面積卻是和台北中正紀念堂兩廳院的國家劇院同樣大小,而且擁有最新的劇場專業設備,如此設計,也就方便了在此排練或演出的製作,得以「原裝」地很容易搬演到台北的旗艦劇場了。

 

Cloud Gate Theater is located on a historic site in Tamsui District, New Taipei City (No. 36, Ln. 6, Sec. 1, Zhongzheng Rd.). The southwest part of the theater complex is Hobe Fort built by Liu Mingchuan in 1886, it has four remaining forts. Behind the theater is Taiwan’s first golf course built ninety-seven years ago during the Japanese colonial period.  The main building is composed of two major parts – the rehearsal studio and the main theater.  The rehearsal studio is converted from the former Radio Taiwan International (Tamsui quarters) built in 1960; during the cold war, it was used as the base for Broadcasting Corporation of China and in 2007, it moved to Zhongzheng Road, Tamsui District.  This old two-story house is a historic building. The clean interior without any pillars and four-meter high ceiling is a most suitable space for a rehearsal studio.  Given that the old house is identified as a historic site, it is protected and any reconstruction must be done in accordance with the relevant laws.  Because of this circumstance, Lin and the team of architects were forced to think of another possibility to build a new theater. As a result, the six-story new theater is built behind this historic building; there is a wide corridor with sunlight shining through a transparent glass ceiling between the two buildings.  The two levels of the old house have been converted into two black box theaters for small- to medium-sized performances. The lower level, where Studio Theater 1 is located, also has a multi-functional space used as storage for costumes and props, a stage scenery workshop, a reception area, the staff entrance, and offices. The higher level where Studio Theater 2 is located also contains three dressing rooms and offices.  On the first floor, there is a gallery for exhibitions and offices. The second to fourth floors house the main theater, which includes the theater stage, audience seating area, and dressing rooms. On the top floor there is a meditation room.

 

On the day that I visited the complex, it had an exhibition in the first floor gallery entitled In Between The Moments: Cloud Gate in a Photographer’s Memory by Liu Chen-hsing (劉振祥) displaying precious photographs of Cloud Gate Dance Theatre by Liu taken over the last twenty-seven years including, significantly, a company group photo taken right after the 2008 fire accident. Built of a large piece of wood, Sunbeam Platform located on top of the old house, connects the new and the old buildings, at the same time, it is a free-access area for the public. Another remarkable design feature is the unadorned back curtain of the main theater stage that, when unfolded, provides a view through green tinted glass windows and across the Sunbeam Platform onto the breathtaking landscape of the Tamsui riverbank and Bail - the Company’s former home of sixteen years, as well as the site of the Wushantou(烏山頭) rehearsal studio that was destroyed by fire.

 

Uniquely, a carved lintel in the old house, the former Broadcasting Corporation of China, reads “Respect the Homeland, Strengthen Self (莊敬自強)” - a slogan used by the Republic of China (Taiwan) Government in response to the United Nations Resolution 2758 in 1971 that during the 1970s and 1980s was commonly used to extol the spirit of private enterprise.  The lintel serves as a witness for Taiwan to this unpleasant historical moment.  The former fountain located in front of the building has been removed and replaced with a huge lush green lawn. In addition, the area in front of the old house has a concrete walkway, car park, and serves as a 1,500-person capacity outdoor theater.  Together with the new theater, there are four performance venues in the theater complex.

 

Although, the main theater only has a capacity of 450-seats, surprisingly, its stage dimensions are similar to those of the Taipei National Theater, and it is fully equipped with advanced theater technology. This coherent approach aims to facilitate the production process from rehearsal to presentation. Eventually, a performance will enjoy a seamless transition to the flagship theater in Taipei without much alteration.

 

 

劇場園區可蹓蹥竟日

A Stroll Along the Garden

 

2.「花語餐廳」旁荷花池上羅曼菲的雕像「旋的冥想」。
 The statue of Lo Man-fei in the lotus pond near Flower Whispers Restaurant.
攝影Photo Credit: 劉振祥 Liu Chen-hsiang

 

林懷民將淡水的雲門劇場稱為「綠劇場」,那不僅是指劇場周邊滿是高

樹林蔭,建築融入大自然中,新建的劇場流線型的青銅屋頂,遠觀有如綠雲,青銅簷下墨綠色的鋼鐵A字型撐架,與淡綠玻璃帷幕相互映照,更是綠意盎然!

 

雲門劇場佔地頗廣,但劇場建築祇用了有限的面積,得以保留闊廣的空間。林懷民為此花了不少時間到中南部田尾埔里選購了二百多棵不同的台灣樹種,遍植園區各處,四季開花,此行仍可聞到桂花微香。林懷民更指著老房子牆腳已生長得頗為茂盛的攀爬植物說,園區空氣好,植物樹木都生長得很快,他相信這些植物很快便能繼續長高,將老房子冷冰冰的外牆攀滿掩去,他心目中的綠劇場很快便可出現。

 

劇場周邊園區內,林懷民還特意與設計師打造了三個讓人可蹓蹥竟日的「景區」。從寬敝的「日光平台」,向右邊走下寬大的階梯,首個「景區」隨即映入眼簾,以林懷民舞作《花語》為名的玻璃小餐廳,小餐廳主要以玻璃材質建構,用以採納天然光線,餐廳提供的簡餐,宣稱有台北最好吃的小籠包,世界第一名的烏龍珍珠奶茶,和新創的茶品。

 

餐廳前的一方荷花池,於花葉間拱托出一尊似曾相識的女舞者起舞前銅像,那可是將裝置於宜蘭的雲門二的靈魂人物,雲門早期的傑出舞者羅曼菲(1955-2006)的雕像,由作者林健成以青銅翻製的第三尊塑像,那是羅曼菲生前在林懷民為她編作的《輓歌》中,以近十分鐘不斷迴旋,表達無限哀思的裙裾迴旋造型。雕像的影子和裙裾起伏間刻意蝕空的好些小洞,不僅在陽光映照水影反射時,因角度改變而有著不同的變化,緩慢推移有如時光流轉,甚至在孔洞中會長出荷葉小花,散發出無盡的生命力。這座題為《旋的冥想》除紀念羅曼菲,亦能激發年輕舞者的想像和奮發心志!

 

在荷花池相隔不遠的小路旁,植有一棵老梅,那卻是1980年代林懷民母親林鄭翩翩女士親手所植的梅樹,1995年移植到八里雲門的排練場,去年亦隨著雲門新劇場的落成移植到淡水來。

 

第二個「景點」在遙對著老房子正門的小坡上。於百年茄苳老樹下,一幢當年可能是用作員工住宿的小房子重新設計而成的「大樹書房」,用作售賣特選書籍、明信片、文創品和雲門紀念品。沿書房後邊的戶外小樓梯可攀上書房屋頂上的陽台,可近望滬尾砲台,和相鄰的忠烈寺,在此一蔭庇在百年茄苳樹繁茂枝葉下的屋頂陽台,設置有遮陽傘的休閒座椅,慢慢品茗香茶、咖啡,和雲門特別委托釀造的日光啤酒,透過綠葉西望,仍能隱若得見淡水河上的水影。(參觀當日是星期一,「花語」和「大樹」都休息,也就未能享用餐飲、咖啡了。)

 

Lin Hwai-min named Cloud Gate Theater in Tamsui, Green Theater, referring not only to the abundant greenery surrounding it but also to the organic form of the theater’s bronze roof that, from afar, resembles a green painted cloud and is supported by dark green steel A-frame with a pastel green glass curtain around it creating another poetic landscape. The extensive site area of Cloud Gate Theater complex gave Lin room for planting two hundred varieties of Taiwanese tree species, all brought from the center southern part of Taiwan, Tianwei Puli (田尾埔里).  They are scattered throughout the whole complex and bring a pleasant flowery fragrance to the walkways.  Lin pointed to the blooming vine at the bottom of the wall of the old house and said that he believes the surrounding fresh air enhances the plant’s growth and will enable it to cover the cold concrete wall of the old house. Eventually, his ideal Green Theater will be complete.

 

There is a café and a restaurant, and one of the attractions is Flower Whispers, a boutique restaurant that uses natural lighting; the restaurant is constructed mainly of glass. It serves the best xiǎo lóng bāo in Taipei, award-winning Oolong bubble tea, and other menu items.  In front of it is a lotus pond and standing in the middle of the pond is a bronze sculpture by Lin Chien-cheng, in memory of the remarkable performer Lo Man-fei (1955-2006); the sculpture captures her in a well-known turning movement from Lin Hwai-min’s Requiem. At the side of the pond there is a plum tree planted by Lin’s mother Mrs. Lin Zheng Pin-pin in 1980. In 1995, it was first transplanted to the previous rehearsal studio of Cloud Gate Dance Theater in Bali and was replanted in Tamsui for the opening of the new theater.

 

Another attraction is Trees Bookshop located beneath a hundred-year old Jiadong tree, with a special selection of books, postcards, creative crafted objects, and Cloud Gate mementos. Visitors can take the staircase behind the bookshop up to the rooftop that has a view of Hobe Fort and the nearby National Revolutionary Martyrs' Shrine.  The rooftop is furnished with beach umbrellas and lounge chairs for guests to enjoy tea, coffee, or a specially brewed SunBeer commissioned by Cloud Gate, under the shade of the Jiadong tree. Unfortunately, Flower Whispers and Trees Bookshop are closed on Monday, the day of my visit. And so, I missed the opportunity to taste the food and beverages of these shops.

 

裝置藝術《穿越》具深意

Passing Through, An Installation Reveals a Story

 

 3. 由杜德裕和林懷民共同構思的裝置藝術《穿越》。

Passing Through, the installation by Tu The-yu and Lin Hwai-min

攝影Photo Credit: 周凡夫 Chou Fan-fu

 

在「大樹書房」與「花語」玻璃屋餐廳之間是第三個較易被人忽視的「景點」。那是一個殘舊毀爛的貨櫃箱,那可是1992年黃永洪設計,以貨櫃為主體,雲門在八里的臨時排練場在2008年火燒後倖存之物;貨櫃箱旁放置的多條已扭曲不成形的H型鋼條,原是排練場的鋼樑,同樣自八里搬來,這可是杜德裕和林懷民共同構思創作出來的裝置藝術《穿越》。走入殘毀的貨櫃箱中,穿越盡頭便是「斷涯」山坡,在此放眼長眺,越過淡水河那邊,便是守望著雲門走過十六年艱苦之路的觀音山,山下八里的排練場,正是林懷民和雲門舞者排出十多部經典舞作,並由此走向國際環球巡演的基地,那可是雲門舞集走過的奮鬥歲月,是今日雲門劇場的舊事印記,寓意明顯不過,這可是園區內深具意義的一個藝術空間呀。

 

其實,在「大樹書房」小坡下的側邊,原有一幢可能是用作哨崗休息的小房子,林懷民亦與設計師將之變身成為公眾衛生間。其中原來亦費了好些心思,無論是男用還是女用,其中的「洗手盆」都很獨特,出水方法亦與一般的不一樣,在此不詳述,請看配圖及留待讀者有機會到雲門劇場時去親身體會了。

 

凡此種種,可以見出林懷民在過去那幾年的日子中,為雲門此一「新基地」花用了大量心血,難怪去年颱風吹毀大量樹木(特別是大樹書房的百年老樹),林懷民心痛不矣!事隔多月後,這回在園區內和他漫步,他首先便帶著責備的口氣,埋怨今日官家處事,祇管盡快打通道路交通,不問青紅皂白,便將折斷的樹木全數坎掉,完全沒有考慮樹木是有生命的,有不少應可挽救下來的啊!

 

看見林懷民邊說著仍帶著點痛苦的表情,自然會勸他幾句,但他卻這樣回應﹕「可以放心,我雖然是花了不少時間在雲門劇場,但不辛苦、不累,因為不做雲門劇場,我還是會做其他事情,不會停下來。雖然和政府交手過程難免拖拖拉拉,最終還是做成了;不過,那可是雲門獲得很多人支持爭取得到的。其實,很多事亦不是我們能夠控制的,那還得要看上天啊!」

 

Between Trees Bookshop and Flower Whispers there is another attraction – the remains of the rehearsal studio in Bali designed in 1992 by Wong Wing-Hung that have been turned into an installation. Besides containers used in the building of the Bali studio, there are several distorted I-shaped steel bars that were the original beams of the old studio. The installation, titled Passing Through, is by Tu the-yu and was made in collaboration with Lin Hwai-min. Walking inside the destroyed container, passing through an incline that ends in a sudden drop, one can see rising on the other side of Tamsui river, Guanyinshan mountain, which guarded Cloud Gate during its preceding 16 years of struggle. At the foot of the mountain is the site of the old Bali studio where Lin and his Cloud Gate Company dancers created many masterpieces that toured around the world, a place that witnessed the company’s growth and that now serves as a remembrance of its past.  Unquestionably, the installation is a profound expression of the company’s history.  Next to Trees Bookshop is the former outpost’s resting place now converted into public restrooms. Thoughtfully designed by the team of architects with Lin, the design of unique faucets for the hand basins are especially notable. All these details show Lin’s devotion to the new home for Cloud Gate Dance Theatre and explains why he was heartbroken last year when a typhoon destroyed a large number of plants, especially the hundred-year old tree located at Trees Bookshop.  Even today he complains that the bureaucrats cared more about cleaning up the chaos on the road for the sake of traffic and neglected the life of the trees. Many damaged trees were destroyed and none was saved.  Lin remarks, “Even though I have spent a lot of time in the development of this place, I’m not tired.  If I weren’t busy with this project, other matters would occupy me anyway. I just can’t stop working.  Despite complications in dealing with the Government over the construction, still it is complete. Ultimately, it has relied on the huge support of many people. There are many things beyond our control that depend on their own destiny.”

 

自負盈虧有意外收益

The Growth of a Windfall from Self-financing

 

事實上,雲門劇場自落成之日開始,便要面對自負盈虧的現實生存問題。據估算,雲門劇場每月電費支出約為50萬元(台幣,下同),清潔與保全費用約20至30萬元,還有必須的水費、保險費、園藝植栽費等,仍未計算營運的人力成本和折舊,每年支出估計便高達1500萬元!同時,劇場座落淡水山坡的地點遠離大眾運輸的淡水捷運總站,要轉乘公車或出租汽車,頗為轉折;加上大劇場亦祇有四百五十座位,即使票房滿座仍不易回本。為此,很多藝文圈內人都為雲門劇場的運作和生存,抱著觀望的態度。

 

對此,林懷民便提出他的「永續」看法。他說:「要簽下營運雲門劇場的合約,我已很清楚知道,這個劇場並非祇是雲門的家,而是大家的家,雲門去年不在家的天數超過一百六十日。所以,雲門劇場從開始那一天,便建立了一個新的部門,負責和其他組織藝團合辦節目。要永續的是台灣的生態,並非祇是一個人或一個團體。雲門劇場誕生,亦希望帶來轉變。這個園區並非祇是來看演出,看完演出亦不用急急離開,在這裡還可以看樹、看夕陽,可以喝茶、喝咖啡、喝啤酒…晚上可看星星,聽蟲鳴、聽蛙叫….。」

 

雲門劇場自去年6月1日開始,正式推出園區導覽活動,有四套不同費的導覽方案,內容整合了雲門歷史、劇場建築說明、身體律動體驗、園區內外遊覽,還可在「花語餐廳」,和「大樹書房」以特定折扣消費。意料之外的是,這些園區導覽活動推出後,不僅中南部不少雲門粉絲特意北上來參加導覽活動,公司機構、社團組織亦組織團隊來參與,反應之熱烈是最初沒有想到的,每月估計這筆意料之外的收入約有四、五十萬元,成了雲門劇場每月最穩定的收益,但與龐雜的支出相較,這仍祇是杯水車薪;同時,隨著時日推移,劇場的「新鮮感」減退甚至消失後,園區導覽活動的收益亦將難保了。

 

Cloud Gate Theater has striven to be self-financing.  Details of its costs include monthly electricity expenses of around NTD$500,000, cleaning expenses of around NTD$200,000-300,000 and other expenses such as water bills, security fees, gardening fees, and so forth. It comes to an annual expense of NTD$15 million, which does not include the manpower costs for the operation or depreciations. This is coupled with the drawback of its inconvenient location - it is away from public transportation with Tamsui Metro station the nearest station and from there it’s necessary to transit by either taxi or buses to get to the theater.  Moreover, even if the main theater could reach its full 450-seated capacity for every performance, it would hardly cover all expenses. Therefore, many art practitioners are concerned about how Cloud Gate Theater can find a way to generate a profitable income to survive.

 

Lin talks about a “sustainable operation” for the theater complex, he comments, “From the moment, I signed the B.O.T contract, I was certain that this theater would not just be home for Cloud Gate Dance Theatre. Most of time, the company is away on international tours, for example, last year, the company was not in Taiwan for at least 160 days. Obviously, it could be a home for everyone. With this intention, the theater complex created a new department especially responsible for developing co-productions with other art companies.  To maintain a sustainable ecology of dance in Taiwan requires collective efforts rather than a single person or an organization.  I hope that this theater complex can bring a change.  To remember this place is not only for performance, but also a place to appreciate nature, trees, enjoy the sunset, enjoy tea, coffee, a Sunbeer. . . at night, you can watch the stars, listen to insects and frogs sing. . .”

 

Cloud Gate Theater officially launched a series of guided tours starting 1 June of last year, there are four different programs whose integrated content includes the history of Cloud Gate Dance Theatre, the architecture of the theater, rhythmic body workshop, and a visit to the whole compound including discount rates for special items at Flower Whispers. Surprisingly, after the introduction of these guided tours, not only fans from central and southern parts of Taiwan came for them, even enterprising and community organizations organized groups to participate, this unexpected enthusiastic response helps to generate an estimated monthly income of about NTD$400,000-500,000, which has become the most stable monthly income, but compared to the huge total amount of the complex’s expenses, it is certainly still just a drop in the bucket.  At the same time, as time passes, the newness of these attractive guided tour packages will wear off and there is no guarantee that they will continue to bring in such lucrative revenue.

 

千萬獎金成立「創計劃」

A Ten Million ‘Creation Fund’

 

這次到雲門劇場參觀,正是新年假期後的第一個星期一的第一個上班日,林懷民午後便開始與舞團進行排練。在他的助理劉福英女士陪同下,先行參觀了劇場內外,及園區各處,再到老房子的排練場去看林老師和舞團排練。老房子的樓底空間雖高,但當日選排的是一月下旬到美國巡演的《稻禾》,一群男舞者持著長長的藤棍械鬥,節奏快速的高能量剛性舞蹈,便明顯見得那空間仍然不大足夠;有些時候,藤棍並未能高高舉盡,這個曾於2014年搬演來港,用作為「雲門」四十周年的製作,舞者都很年輕,充滿爆發性的青春能量。但見林懷民在整個排練過程中,全神專注,不住對個別舞者作出提點要求。在通排後,還向個別舞者作出單獨的指導。

 

後來在淡水河畔飯後漫步時,很自然便談到排練的新一代舞者。林懷民這樣說﹕「《稻禾》每一個動作我都太熟悉了,其實在假期後回來,首天排練有今日的表現已很好的了,但我總是要求更好。其實,新一代舞者的條件較我們那一代好多了,但我們仍得為他們提供多些機會,我最近獲頒一個獎(筆者按:「蔡萬才台灣貢獻獎」),獎金有一千萬元台幣,大約二百五十萬元港幣,我便要求頒獎給得的機構將獎金拿出來,作為一筆供年輕藝術家創作的委約金,好讓有才華的新一代能安心創作。」

 

主辦單位尊重林老這份美意,雲門也就將林老師這筆獎金作為鼓勵在舞蹈與戲劇領域發展的年輕人創作的「創計劃」母金。林懷民這樣說:「錢不是很多,主要還是提供場地,技術支援,不是要做驚天動地的偉大東西,是給大家時間,吸收創作經驗,有個創作狀態,所以也不急於看成果,可能要十年,甚至更久。」很明顯地,林懷民現時心中最想的仍是下一代的承傳,最關心的仍是新一代的舞者,那亦正是雲門劇場未來的希望。

 

My visit to Cloud Gate Theater occurred on the first working day after the Chinese Lunar New Year holiday. On that afternoon, I was accompanied by Lin’s assistant Miss Liú Fú-yīng (劉福英) on my site visit. Later on, she brought me to visit the rehearsal of Rice –  one of Lin’s masterpieces that was being prepared for an America Tour at the end of January.  A group of male dancers each holding a long rattan stick dances with high energy to a strong rhythm resembling fighting in this relatively high celling studio but the dancers are still not able to extend the stick fully upward, clearly, the space is still limiting.  Rice was performed in Hong Kong at 2014 to celebrate Cloud Gate Dance Theatre’s 40th anniversary, and is filled with an explosive fresh energy from the youthful dancers. I witnessed Lin’s extreme concentration; he actively gives corrections and comments to the dancers during the rehearsal process. Even after rehearsal, he continues his one-on-one coaching of dancers. 

 

After lunch, he and I strolled along Tamsui riverbank, we talked about the new generation of dancers. Lin said, “I’m thoroughly cognizant of every movement detail in Rice, thus I need to refine it, even though the dancers have performed very well for the first day of work after the holidays. I have observed, by comparison, the new generation of dancers have better conditions than we did, but we shall continue to provide opportunities for them. Recently, I received an award [Tsai Wan-tsai Taiwan Contribution Award] that came with 10 million New Taiwan dollars, approximately 2.5 million Hong Kong dollars. Instead, I proposed to the organization to use this money to set up a creation fund for talented young artists, to provide them a secure environment to create.”  The organization agreed to Lin’s suggestion.  Therefore, Cloud Gate founded a Creation Fund Foundation to focus on encouraging and developing young creators in the areas of dance and theater.  Lin added, “It is a humble amount of money [given to each artist], mainly we provide venue and technical support. We wish with such support that young artists can have time to learn from the process of creation, to develop a creative atmosphere, so they can be removed from a result-orientated mode of production. Maybe it will take ten years or more for that result.”  Obviously, Lin wishes to give the best to the next generation precisely because this new group of dancers is the future of Cloud Gate Dance Theatre.

 

大陸巡演《水月》說再見

Farewell to Moon Water

4. 舞者在排練場上專心致志。

The dancers are in the main rehearsal studio

攝影Photo Credit: 劉振祥 Liu Chen-hsiang

 

這種寄望下一代的承傳訊息,到雲門劇場參觀的人士不難感受得到。從「日光平台」層入口所見的第一眼,除了綠色方形柱體上反白字的中英文雲門劇場字樣,和「雲門」的手寫標誌字外,更有意思的是,入口旁邊陳列著雕塑大師朱銘「人間系列」的雕塑,一雙年輕夫婦推著嬰兒車正在進入「劇場」,寓意著一代一代的承傳,和雲門劇場對下一代的寄望。

 

在「日光平台」上除了木製長條凳子,還有好幾組「人間系列」的雕塑,全是朱大師2007年後以黑白雙色搭配材質構建的「白彩人間系列」,富有生活趣味的雕像。這些雕像,原只借出於去年4月下旬開始作為展覽在園區內陳列展出,以賀雲門劇場開幕,展期於去年10月便應結束的了,後來大家卻覺得這些雕像都像生活在園中一樣,那就讓展覽繼續下去了….繼續到何時呢?林懷民笑著說﹕「我也不知道呀!」

 

但他知道的是,雲門舞集今年在雲門劇場出現的日子並不多,一月中旬雲門會重訪美國,在三藩市亞洲藝術博物館演出後,便會在洛杉磯、達拉斯、華盛頓甘迺迪中心演出大約十場《稻禾》,直到2月中才返回台灣,為期約一個月。4月下旬再將《稻禾》帶到巴黎、里昂,接著5月會在倫敦、伯明翰演出《流浪者之歌》,緊接著5月下旬則在俄羅斯的聖彼得堡、莫斯科,和卡捷琳堡演出八場《白水/微塵》。今年第三次外訪在8月下旬至9月上旬,巡演自福州開始,再到北京、上海,最後在廣州,其演出十二場《水月》。

 

談到外訪巡演,林懷民便不無感慨,他說﹕「今日世界各地都不斷邀請雲門前往演出,但每次巡演我堅持不能超過五個星期,那已是極限,每個人都會疲乏了。祇有回到家中才會是真正的休息,離家超過五個星期會很痛苦啦,會想家啦。過去不僅難以相信雲門可以去俄羅斯登台,還可以到中國大陸交流演出。今年八、九月間我們會去大陸演出,經過經理人安排,有七十三間劇院都要我們去,那不可能呀,現在去四個城市,帶去的是《水月》。《水月》剛於去年10月初在雲門劇場演出,這次在大陸巡演後,11月下旬重回雲門劇場演出後,以後便不會再演《水月》了。你一定會問為何以後不再演?原因很簡單呀,雲門還有很多節目要演,老是演舊節目那有機會演新節目呢?」

 

As a visitor to Cloud Gate Theater, you sense its strong need to pass down its heritage.  At the Sunbeam Platform entrance to the theatre is a green rectangular column with, in white, Cloud Gate Theatre in English and the Chinese characters for Cloud Gate rendered in calligraphy. Next to the entrance is a sculpture from the Living World Series by the internationally renowned sculptor Ju Ming, depicting a couple pushing a baby carriage towards the theater, symbolizing both the passing down of heritage from generation to generation, and the next generation of Cloud Gate Theater’s hopes. Further down the Sunbeam Platform, there are more sculptures from Ju’s white Living World Series - begun in 2007 and working with black and white materials, in the series Ju focusses on depicting, with a sense of humor, the daily gestures and postures of city people. The exhibition was given by the Ju Ming Museum from last April to celebrate the opening of Cloud Gate Theater and was supposed to close in October of last year, now everybody feels that these sculptures have come to inhabit the complex and they wonder if they will stay; when asked when they will return to Ju Ming Museum, Lin smiles and says, “I don’t know!”

 

The company is quite occupied with international touring, for example, in January until the middle of February, Rice toured to the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, Berkeley, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, Dallas, Austin, and the Kennedy Center in Washington, followed by another tour at the end of April to Paris and Lyon. In May, they performed the Songs of the Wanderers in London and Birmingham, followed by eight performances of White Water and Little Dusts in Russia in late May in St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Ekaterinburg.  For the third time this year, the Company is going on a tour to China with performances of Moon Water in late August to early September, starting in Fuzhou, then to Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, with the last stop in Qingdao. 

 

Speaking about International touring, Lin sighed, “Honestly, there are many invitations coming in from all over the world, but I insist five weeks is the maximum for each tour, if not, everyone will be exhausted by then.  Home is where you gain some rest, to be away from home for over five weeks is miserable, I start to be homesick. Astonishingly to realize what was impossible to imagine in the past that Cloud Gate would be invited to perform in Russia or even have an exchange opportunity with China, these are now possible.  The tour to China starts in August and September this year, at first, there were seventy-three theaters that wanted our performances, but it is not feasible! Now we have decided to perform Moon Water in five cities for this China tour instead, after the tour, the piece will have its last performance in November back at Cloud Gate Theater just as it was performed once last October on the same stage. Perhaps you might be curious as to why I have decided to put an end on this piece? The reason is simple, there are many great dance pieces in Cloud Gate Dance Theatre, how will there be space for new work if I keep performing repertory?”

 

台灣藝文之光的胜旗

A Shinning Flag of Taiwan’s Culture

 

雲門劇場成為雲門舞集和雲門2的工作場所及演出基地後,有些員工舞者,每天可能要花兩句鐘才能回到舞團來。林懷民自己同樣仍住在八里,每天同樣舟車勞頓地「跨越」淡水河到劇場來,可有考慮搬到淡水劇場附近居住呢?

 

林懷民不用思考便搖頭給出答案,他說﹕「不會啦,人老啦,身體告訴我,年紀大啦,我回雲門去的日子不會太久啦。」不過,即使林懷民祇擔任顧問,退居二線,相信他仍是喜歡回到雲門劇場內。當日他便帶著筆者與內子乘著電梯直接上到劇場的後台化妝間,穿越到走廓盡頭一扇長閉著的小門,門後是一道樓梯,直接走上頂層,也就是在大劇場舞台上方的鐵網架,由這一層再穿越到劇場的屋頂去,眼前便豁然開朗。其時正是黃昏時份,當日雖然天陰,未見夕陽,但天際仍有紅霞,紅霞之下便是守護著這片土地的觀音山;正是登得高,望得遠,淡水河的水面和淡水周邊的景緻,都較下層看得更清晰、更闊廣,看來天晴時的日落景色當更吸引,心頭即時感受到,正是人間晚晴何處有,懷民雲門此中尋啊!

 

其實,與林老師走在台北街頭,總是引來不少途人目光,這次走在淡水鎮上,飯店的老闆娘自然熟悉他,鄰座的食客,公車上的乘客、捷運車內的遊人,都毋不投來注目禮;那雙在公車上和捷運上一再遇上的夫婦更喜孜孜地說,今日真是三生有幸,能一再遇上林老師,不是在電視中,而是親身目睹了!那位身為丈夫的說著說著,滿面散發著神采。看來林懷民用舞蹈築成的橋樑,早已穿越了整個台灣社會,他又豈是橋樑中的一棵螺絲釘呢!?他可是橋樑上遠遠便能見得到,象徵著台灣藝文之光的胜旗呢!

 

Since Cloud Gate Theater has become the home for Cloud Gate Dance Theatre and Cloud Gate 2, it takes two hours travelling time for some of the dancers to get to work. Likewise, Lin lives in Bali and needs to cross the Tamsui River every day for work, has he ever considered moving closer to the theater in Tamsui to avoid such tiring travel?  Lin shakes his head and says in a determined tone, "No, I’m old, my body started to tell me that I wouldn’t need to travel for work daily for too much longer now.”  However, even if Lin Hwai-min only takes a back seat as a consultant, I believe he will still enjoy going back to Cloud Gate Theater. The day of my visit, he took me and my wife on an elevator that arrived directly to the backstage dressing room, at the end of a long corridor there is a door, behind the door is a stairway leading directly to the top floor, which is a large iron grid above the stage, we go through from there and reach the roof of the theater.  It was dusk when we arrived, although the fog shrouded the sun, there was a thin red glow in the sky and below it you see the guardian of this land – Guanyinshan, the higher we climb, the further we see the fine view of the Tamsui river and its surroundings, its seems evermore clear, wider from this perspective, I can image the beauty of this scenery on a sunny day. Instantly, I feel, where love emerges, people find it within the gate of a cloud!

 

In fact, while walking with Lin on the streets of Taipei, passers-by always notice him.  This time, when I walked around Tamsui district with him, a restaurant owner recognized him and he simply attracts people on the street who pay their respects to him - for example, the husband of a joyful couple we met on the bus and metro exclaimed, “Such an honor to meet Master Lin twice today in person and not only on TV!”  It seems like Lin Hwai-min has successfully used dance to build a bridge to connect the whole Taiwan society. How could he be merely a bolt in the bridge as he describes? For me, Lin Hwai-min is the shinning flag that symbolizes the success of Taiwan’s culture, standing strongly astride the bridge.