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[中][ENG]劇院關燈,而網上繁花盛放 When one door closes, another opens

[中]劇院關燈,而網上繁花盛放

文:陳冠而

「COVID-19」疫潮席捲歐洲,歐洲多國實施「lockdown」(封城),千萬人須嚴守隔離令,留在家中。 Lockdown意味著「lights out」,實體劇院被逼「熄燈」,卻帶來了另一片星火璀燦──歐洲藝文界旋即以網上渠道,繼續為觀眾提供藝文節目。觀眾/網民/讀者只要鍵入特定關鍵字,便可在螢幕前一覽海量的表演藝術節目。

Rosas作為一個例子比利時著名舞團Rosas,早於1983年始便創作多齣舞蹈錄像,其中深入民心的《Rosas danst Rosas》於2003年時已製成線上教學,鼓勵各方編舞創作自己的版本。疫情一開始,Rosas也很快把這個作品帶回我們的眼光中,以「Dance in times of isolation」(中譯:舞在隔離的日子)為題,廣邀各方「make your own version of Rosas danst Rosas」(創作屬於你的《Rosas danst Rosas》版本),形成新的集體編舞(collective choreography)。

Rosas亦把多齣舊作放到網上限時免費分享,更有編舞課堂[1]及交流等,詳情可在其臉書專頁找到。其他當代舞團如荷蘭舞蹈劇場(NDT)、Peeping Tom、艾甘.漢舞蹈團(Akram Khan Company)等世界知名劇場、芭蕾舞團及歌劇院也有如Rosas般串流播放舊作,在此不贅。

劇團或劇院的錄像頻道

不少舞團或劇院亦有於YouTube設立專屬頻道,策劃網上節目。

英國國家芭蕾舞團(English National Ballet)的YouTube頻道,有「Wednesday Watch Party」(中譯:週三觀看派對),逢星期三播放整齣舞作、「ENB at HOME」提供線上芭蕾舞課,還有「Short Dance Films」(短篇舞蹈影片)等欄目。倫敦沙德勒之井劇院(Sadler’s Wells Theatre)頻道更有「Dance Made Today」(中譯:今時的舞蹈創作)、「5 Things You Might Not Know About」(中譯:5件你可能不知道的事)等訪問欄目,介紹更多舞作背後的資訊。

這些頻道策劃性強,各有其強烈特色;篇幅短的訪問或教育系列,貼近大眾日常網上生活習慣,在普及藝術教育、觀眾拓展上甚有裨益。而網上亦提供更開放性的連結網,讀者如想進一步了解,亦能找到更深入的資訊,自由地建立自己的學習階梯。

表演藝術影像串流平台

如Netflix般的表演藝術影像串流平台,在外國選擇亦很多。

德國ARTE Concert網羅歐洲表演,合作藝團有Latvian National Opera & Ballet(拉脫維亞國家歌劇院及芭蕾舞團)、Dutch National Opera(荷蘭國家歌劇院)、Finnish National Opera(芬蘭國家歌劇院)等等;小撇步是用不同語言會出現不同的節目推介,全部免費。Marquee TV為付費串流平台,較多著名劇目,並設艾甘.漢(Akram Khan)、亞歷山大.埃克曼(Alexander Ekman)、徹卡奧維(Sidi Larbi Cherkaoui)及依利.季利安(Jiří Kylián)作品集。

Ovid.tv是以錄像作品為主的收費串流平台,當中有不少舞蹈紀錄片,除翩娜.包殊(Pina Bausch)、崔莎.布朗(Trisha Brown)等著名編舞外,也有以地域或舞種出發,如古巴學舞的青少年、日本歌舞伎,展現主流舞台以外的不同風景。

這些以商業為主的平台集合了不同地方的藝團、不同類型的作品,但相對策劃性較低。

Instagram上的舞蹈世界,及網絡形式的策劃與創造

在需要特意排程、守候直播,較接近傳統的全套舞作觀賞模式以外,我和網上舞蹈的連結,更多是發生在日常的細碎當中——包括Facebook、YouTube或Instagram(IG)的手指碌碌日常。

打開IG,世界各地非常多舞者都在努力經營著IG帳戶,hashtags如 #contemporarydance#dancehk#dancechoreography 等,會領你往一個個不分上下,各具個性的舞蹈世界。

IG以視覺主導,更多舞蹈錄像、相片形式的創作分享。活躍於IG的Nowness,開宗明義是網上藝術策劃,甚多舞蹈錄像及跨界項目,視覺精緻,地域廣,絕對值得注意。

以色列巴舒化舞團(Batsheva Dance Company)也很活躍於IG,設有batshevadancerscreate及其他舞團成員的帳戶,策劃舞蹈攝影、錄像、編創、討論會等項目,與觀眾/網民的互動親近而多元化。

網上策展也一如劇院策展,涵蓋藝術欣賞導覽、技巧教授,甚至有更多新型態創作。網上節目時間彈性、免費或低廉費用、自由度高等特性,在觀眾拓展上有巨大優勢;在創作及知識傳遞方面能跨越時空限制,國際交流變得更容易,同時催生出新的創作及觀賞框架:例如集體編舞或舞蹈於各種空間的可能。

香港舞蹈界的反應

讓我們的鏡頭帶回本港。有資源作網上播放舊作的,都以九大團為主,皆因一般中小型團製作費捉襟見肘,難有餘裕製作出色的錄像記錄。

較奪目的是城市當代舞蹈團,除網上授課,又特設藝術家網路駐留計劃及網上研討會,回應當前的困境與展開討論;最近更推出了CCDC藝術頻道、「Post it for YOU」等等,充分顯示出舞團對當下轉變之敏銳度。其積極、進取的能量,及以藝術策劃回應世界的心思,是一個當代藝團時刻思考藝術與人的關係的證明。

香港芭蕾舞團的「港芭@家」系列也很積極連繫觀眾,特別拍攝了網上芭蕾課、舞者訪問、「芭蕾101」教育系列等等。獨立身體教育團身體遊樂場則善用家中物品帶父母跟孩子玩身體遊戲,甚至發展了聲音導航,解決了一邊看屏幕一邊「郁動」的困難,充滿靈活巧思。

結語

有朋友擔心網上演出會消弭了現場演出的魅力,我則認為現場演出的獨特性不可能被取代;反之,香港的表演藝術界能否積極地考慮以網絡作為宣傳、教育、導覽、與觀眾或新觀眾接觸,突破過往與普羅大眾較脫離的邊緣狀態,網絡上的延伸可否看作一些新的小工具(gadgets),幫助我們「reconnect」(重新連接)?

更甚者,網絡能做到的資源共享、跨地域交流,作為拓闊討論、另一種創意策劃的場所與媒介,或如歐美的不吝分享、以藝術作為支援,其對開放資源、共享資源的容納,其藝團、藝術家的社群意識(sense of community),視藝術為社會的重要部分,都值得我們思考和學習。

我想重要的是,作為藝術工作者,時刻敏銳於此時此地藝術與人的關係;敢於討論新語境下的改變,適應及有覺知地使用新技術;新媒體時代中,一條路可以是生出新的藝術形式,另一條路也可能是尋回現場表演藝術一些古老而從未過時的重要核心,在虛擬的反照中重新突顯出來。

[1]Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker 於法蘭西公學院進行的演講:https://bit.ly/2AOdoE3

==

文:陳冠而

劇場導演、跨媒介創作人、策劃;時常旅行,習慣游離。小息跨媒介創作室藝術總監;城大創意媒體畢業生。

[ENG] When one door closes, another opens

Original Text: Chan Kwun Fee

COVID-19 has swept across the world, with many countries implementing lockdown. Millions of people have had to abide by orders of quarantine and stay home. ‘Lockdown’ means ‘lights out’ for theatres. Yet, while those lights may have gone out, another platform has come into the spotlight -- the arts and cultural circle turning to the internet and continuing to provide arts programmes online. When audiences/netizens/ readers type certain keywords into search engines, they are able to browse an abundance of performing arts programmes on their screens.

Rosas as an example

The famous Belgian dance company, Rosas, began filming dance videos as early as 1983. The popular work, Rosas danst Rosas, was incorporated into an online tutorial in 2003, allowing dance artists to make their own versions based on the online videos. At the beginning of COVID-19, Rosas revisited the work and brought it to the audience with a new theme, “Dance in times of isolation”. They invited the public to “make your own version of Rosas danst Rosas”, creating a new collective choreography.

Rosas has also put their past productions online and allowed the public free access for a limited period, along with choreography classes[1] and exchanges on choreographic ideas. Details can be found on their Facebook page. Other contemporary dance companies, such as Nederlands Dans Theater, Peeping Tom or the Akram Khan Company, to name just a few, have also streamed past productions online in the same way as Rosas, along with numerous international theatre, ballet and opera companies.

Video Channels of companies

Numerous companies have also set up official channels on YouTube, curating online programmes.

These include English National Ballet, which launched Wednesday Watch Party where its dance productions are shown every Wednesday, while ENB at HOME provides online ballet classes and features such as ‘Short Dance Films’. Sadler’s Wells Theatre rolled out interview programmes, including Dance Made Today and 5 Things You Might Not Know About, introducing behind-the-scenes programmes on their dance productions.

These channels have strong curation and unique characteristics. The shorter items, such as the interview or educational programmes, fit the public’s day-to-day online browsing and are good for arts education and expanding audiences. The channels also include links where viewers can find more in-depth information and tailor-make their own learning approach.

Performing arts video streaming platforms

Numerous video streaming platforms, similar to Netflix, offer arts internationally.

Germany’s Arte Concert has a collection of dance performances from various European companies including Latvian National Opera & Ballet, Dutch National Opera and Finnish National Opera with recommendations in different languages. All are free. Marquee TV is a paid streaming service provider which offers relatively more selections of famous dance works including collections of work by the likes of Akram Khan, Alexander Ekman, Sidi Larbi Cherkaoui and Jiří Kylián.

Ovid.tv is a dance recording streaming service provider which offers quite a few dance documentaries. Apart from those on renowned contemporary choreographers like Pina Bausch and Trisha Brown, it has documentaries on different regions and dance genres, such as teenagers learning dance in Cuba or Japanese geishas, thus exploring areas beyond mainstream dance.

These primarily commercial platforms gather work by dance companies from different regions and genres, but have comparatively looser curation.

Dance world on Instagram, and the curation and making of online dance programmes

In addition to waiting to catch scheduled live streaming of dance performances, which is similar to the traditional way of watching performances, I frequently connect to online dance programmes on Facebook, YouTube or Instagram, platforms we visit frequently in our day to day browsing.

On Instagram, there are many dance artists actively running their accounts. They use hashtags such as #contemporarydance, #dancehk or #dancechoreography to take viewers into a world of dance where all dancers/works are equally unique in their own ways.

Instagram is visually-oriented, so it is particularly suitable for sharing creative dance videos and images. Active on Instagram, Nowness is specifically an online art curator and has many dance videos and crossover projects. It is visually striking and covers a wide range of areas, which makes it worth checking out.

Israel’s Batsheva Dance Company is also active on Instagram, having the official account ‘batshevadancerscreate’ as well as accounts for company members. They curate dance video shooting, recording, choreography and forums, employing a variety of approaches to get close to and interact with viewers.

Online curation is like theatre curation, which covers guidance on art appreciation, teaching of technique and creating new forms of art. The flexible schedules, the ability to offer programmes to watch for free or for only a small charge and the high degree of freedom offered by online dance programmes make them a good way to expand audiences. In terms of creative practice and transfer of knowledge, dance on the internet breaks geographical and temporal barriers, facilitating international cultural exchange. Moreover, online programmes stimulate new forms of art creation and appreciation, for example, collective choreography and the potential of dance in different kinds of spaces.

Response from the Hong Kong dance sector

Turning the focus to Hong Kong, while some past productions by the larger dance companies have been shown online, some small and medium dance companies have only a small production budget, thus leaving few resources to make good quality performance recordings.

City Contemporary Dance Company (CCDC) has done a good job in its online domain. Apart from online dance classes, it has an online artists-in-residence scheme and an online forum to respond to the current circumstances. It has also launched a CCDC Art Channel and Post it for YOU. CCDC has been quite sensitive and proactive to the change of situation. Its proactivity and use of art curation to respond to the change in society and environment is an example of how a contemporary dance company constantly considers the relationship between art and people.

Hong Kong Ballet has also actively engaged the audience through HKBALLET@HOME. It has online ballet classes, interviews with ballet dancers and Ballet 101, which is an educational series. ‘Our Moving Playground’, an independent body movement educational group, makes use of daily objects at home to bring parents and children together to play body games. They have even come up with the ingenious idea of providing an audio guide to solve the problem of having to move and focus on a screen at the same time.

Conclusion

Some people are worried that online dance programmes will diminish the audience for on-site live performances. However, I think the uniqueness of on-site performances is irreplaceable. Should the performing arts sector in Hong Kong consider using the internet to promote, educate, guide and engage with both old and new audiences? To break through the past marginal state where art is relatively distant from the general public, can the internet be seen as a new means to help us reconnect with art?

Furthermore, sharing resources and frontier free exchanges are also advantages of the internet. This is the starting point for expanding the scope of discussion, as well as an alternative venue and medium for creative planning. In Europe and the US, they share resources generously and support society with art. The accommodation to opening up and sharing resources, the sense of community of arts companies and artists, and their way of seeing art as an important part of society are worth looking into and learning from.

I think what is important is that, as an independent art practitioner, one has to be constantly sensitive to the relationship between art and people, and have the courage to discuss the changes brought about by new circumstances, adapting to and using new technologies with awareness. In the era of new media, a new form of art could be born but in addition, a new way of seeing could be found, to retrieve the age old, yet never out of date, core values of live performing arts, which are reflected and gain more prominence in the virtual world.

[1] Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker's lecture at Collège de France:https://bit.ly/2AOdoE3

===

(English Translation by Pomny Chu)

Original Text: Chan Kwun Fee

Theatre director, trans-disciplinary artist, curator. Travels and drifts through borders.Artistic director of Littlebreath Creative Workshop.Graduate of the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong.

焦點 FOCUS (22-3): 幕上之舞 Dance on Screen

當世界各地的表演場地同時停擺,各大小舞團及舞者,除了積極地面對逆/疫境,繼續舞舞舞之外,同時也嘗試開拓其他渠道繼續創作並與觀眾聯繫,視頻網站和社交平台忽爾變成主舞台,屏幕上的舞蹈影像獲得了前所未有的高度關注。

其實以影像去呈現舞蹈這個概念一點也不新,早在電影發明之初已有舞蹈表演的拍攝,近二、三十年隨著影像拍攝器材越見輕巧易用,舞蹈影像在內容、形式及風格上就更見多元。乘著當下幕上/屏中舞蹈比舞台上的舞蹈更百花齊放,我們今期邀請了兩位本地舞蹈影像導演:黎宇文與黃漢樑,跟我們分享他們對「舞蹈影像」這個媒介的製作經驗及看法;而小息跨媒介創作室藝術總監陳冠而,就會從受眾的角度談談她對網上舞蹈節目策劃的一些觀察。

另一方面,上期「焦點」我們了解過城市當代舞蹈團如何在逆境中尋新路向,今期我們就聽聽香港芭蕾舞團新任行政總監李藹怡,如何善用社交媒體推廣芭蕾,令舞團在疫情影響下轉危為機。

While all performing venues remain closed, in the spirit of “keep dancing and carry on”, dance companies and artists all around the world are striving to explore new channels to keep creating new work as well as staying connected with their audiences. Video sharing and social media platforms have become popular stages for dance, and dance on screen is therefore getting the most attention it has ever had.

In fact, presenting dance with moving images is not a novel idea, there were movies on dance right after film had been invented. And in the past two to three decades, video shooting equipment has become more popular and easier to manage, resulting in a diversity of content, form and style in the dance film/video and screen dance genre.

In this issue, we have invited two local dance video directors, Maurice Lai and Wilfred Wong, to share their experiences in creating dance video works as well as their insights on this particular art form; while Chan Kwun Fee, the artistic director of Littlebreath Creative Workshop, will share her observations on online dance programme curation from an audience perspective.

In our previous issue we learned how City Contemporary Dance Company have found ways to keep dancing through hard times and in this issue we have an interview with Heidi Lee, the newly appointed executive director of Hong Kong Ballet. She will tell us her ideas about promoting ballet through social media, and how she sees innovative ways of putting dance on screen as a great opportunity during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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