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[中][Eng]一個世界,一個夢想:《無疆界佛蘭明高》One World, One Dream: Flamenco sin Fronteras

(英文原文刊於2012年的第十四冊第四期Originally published in dance journal/hk 14-4 in 2012. This is a translation of the Chinese article, not a transcript of the interview done in English)

開始時,表演者組成半圓形:穿白色衣服的是歌手、吉他手和鼓手;黑色的是民間樂器演奏者,他們的樂器有四弦吉他(cuatro)、曼陀林(mandolin)、馬拉卡斯(maracas)、方鼓(square drum)和箱鼓(cajon)。白色在左,黑色在右,雙方輪流演出,互為對手。

他們也以半圓結束:只是對峙已停了下來。黑衣的和白衣的身軀混集:一起跳舞、玩耍和歌唱。甚至連背景都從白色變成了紅色、綠色、藍色和黃色,使我想起了一次奧林匹克升旗儀式,200多面旗幟混成了彩虹的所有色彩;來自世界各地的運動員們聚集旗下,祈求人類團結。

穿著黑、白衣服的,分別是來自西班牙和委內瑞拉的藝術家,他們於2012年5月11日在屯門大會堂演出《無疆界佛蘭明高》。這個演出反映了兩國之間的歷史:20世紀初,西班牙音樂家、歌手和舞者抵達南美,在那裡他們發現了豐富的當地民間風俗。被異國情調的非洲-委內瑞拉民謠所吸引,他們創作了新的歌曲和舞蹈,名為Flamenco de ida y Vuelta(離開和回來之歌)。就這樣,根柢已經伸展到不同的傳統,並橫跨了印度、阿拉伯和西班牙文化的佛蘭明高,發展成為一門更加豐富的藝術形式。演出結束時,兩國人民的音樂和舞蹈,就像佛蘭明高的演變一樣,成為動作、聲音和一種整體風格的自然混合物和合作成果。

這就是設計節目的帕科.佩納(Paco Pena)將其命名為《無疆界佛蘭明高》的原因。他的特定目的,是將來自兩個有著殖民敵意的遙遠地區的音樂融為自然一體,從而使西班牙佛蘭明高和非洲-委內瑞拉的民間風俗匯聚在一起,並相互補充。佩納是一位著名的吉他手,他遊歷世界各地,並曾在英國、澳洲、波蘭、德國、比利時和美國演出,超越國界,與人聯繫。1

無疆界這個貫穿整個演出的主題,映照出佩納的哲學和藝術視野。隨著演出的推進,潛在於看似毫無關係的元素之間的相互聯繫,或相反力量之間的相似性,慢慢浮現,讓我突然覺察而感到高興。兩極力量,就像中國的陰陽哲學所說,只存在於相對之中。在本質上,它們不是對立的因素,而是作為一個動態系統的一部分,一對彼此補充並在更大的整體中相互作用的二元因素,就正如沒有黑暗就不會有光的存在,反之亦然。它們是與生俱來地存在於天下萬物和每一個人之中。2

「無疆界」是在男女舞者之間:男佛蘭明高舞者(Bailaor)有強健的身體框架,尤其強調挺拔而堅定的肩膀、抬升的髖部和緊鎖的臀部。他的頭始終保持水平,下巴堅定如鬥牛勇士般,彰顯其身份和尊嚴。相似地,女佛蘭明高舞者(Bailaora)跳舞時拱起背,支撐著她那充滿傲氣的胸膛並提升了她的重心,傳達出貴族的氣息。她抬起的下巴展現出強烈的能量,那是源自寒骨的冰冷與燃燒的激情彼此交鋒--這兩種特質定義了佛蘭明高。看著雙人舞那男女兩人相同的動作編排,觀眾意識到他們實際上是多麼的相似--儘管性別、外表、情感和氣質都不同。畢竟,我們都是擁有通用肢體語言的人。

「無疆界」是在喜悅與悲傷之間:女主角Charo Espino是佛蘭明高的典型,具有吸引目光和觸動心靈的能力。凝在她臉上那彎彎的雙唇和皺著的眉頭,讓人無法輕易分辨出她是喜樂還是悲傷,而只能間接地體驗她的情感強度。她以踢踏著的鞋跟、迴旋的背脊、扭動的雙臂、聳動的肩膀和拍擊著的雙掌,造出最大的張力。佛蘭明高舞者的特徵是莊重而熱情,部分原因是在於這舞蹈源於具有極端性情的吉普賽婦女,她們情緒起伏於醉人的狂喜和赤裸裸的痛苦之間。這舞蹈也是難以置信地富感染力。實際上,「最成功的佛蘭明高舞者表現出所謂的『不可思議的魅力』(duende),西班牙語直解為仙女或妖精,顯示其對情感流動的驚人把握力。在這種精湛的水平上,舞蹈成為一種令人難以忘懷的體驗,把觀眾牽引進舞蹈之中,就像是參與其中一樣。」3 無論喜或愁,Espino都證明了自己是這門技藝的大師--不論我們的語言和背景有何差異,都被她那情感的感染力所全面牽動。

「無疆界」是在舞蹈家、音樂家和歌手之間。與其他舞蹈流派不同,佛蘭明高藝術家經常在舞台上互動,甚至偶爾交換角色。歌手向舞者和音樂家大喊「Olé」(讚嘆詞)、「Agua」(水--間接指太火熱了)和「 Asi se toca」(演得好)。有一次,兩個佛蘭明高舞者作出了回應,演出一段迷你的求愛之舞,充滿了調情、爭吵及和解,就像兩個年輕的戀人一樣。那體態豐腴的女歌手也彷似被他們挑動而開始踢踏起舞!這三個角色在另一個場景中再次洗牌:當歌手表演原聲獨唱時,舞者伴隨著以精緻的步法,有效地以踢踏聲來作合唱。很明顯,這種小組互動可以「照亮」了表演,而欠缺它則只會昏暗。例如,最近在瑞典皇家芭蕾舞團於澳門演出的《天鵝湖》中,伴奏樂團因為身處樂池中而欠缺這重互動,而受到「聲音疏離」和「缺乏戲劇性的張力」等批評。撇開樂池不說,藝術家因為受過個別範疇的訓練,而通常受制於「分工」。但為什麼要在它們之間劃定任何界線呢?儘管擅長不同的「工具」--舞者的身體、音樂家的樂器、歌手的聲音,所有藝術家都是以表演帶來娛樂、愉悅、見識和啟發。

「無疆界」是在西方和東方舞蹈之間。雖然聽來似違反直覺,但某些佛蘭明高舞步讓人想起中國的孔雀舞,一種模仿孔雀動作的民族舞蹈類型。例如,當佛蘭明高舞者迅速捻指並向各個方向盤動手腕時,就會叫人想起「孔雀眼」手勢的形像,用以描繪孔雀用敏銳而富有表情的眼睛環顧四周:拇指被壓在食指之下,而其他三隻手指呈扇形展開以勾勒出眼睛的輪廓。另外,當女佛蘭明高舞者揮舞著褶邊裙襬(trajes de faralaes)和披肩時,它們的荷葉邊如信天翁般滑翔。這與孔雀舞的手臂動作十分相似:以抖動開始,然後流暢地完全伸展。這模仿了孔雀的抖動和曬翅,在飛向天空之前開屏炫耀那精美的尾巴。無論是信天翁或孔雀,他們都以美麗和自由著稱。無論是西班牙人或中國人,我們都致力於追求美麗和自由;舞蹈,儘管形式眾多,卻可以乘載著我們到同一個目的地。

這些由藝術推動的普世價值,並無邊界。在一個只顧經濟敵意和政治鬥爭的世界中,如果說藝術還未算是迫切之需,也起碼是與我們極其相關。她拒絕自我利益,而追求共同的好處;她無視外圍的差異,而堅持核心的人性;她洗淨衝突的過去,而追求共同的夢想。奧斯卡.王爾德(Oscar Wilde)主張藝術的力量是這樣的:「(藝術帶來的)變化當然會是緩慢的,人們不會意識到其存在。他們不會說『我們(英國人)不會與法國作戰,因為她的散文是完美的,』但由於法國的散文是完美的,我們不會討厭這片土地。」他進一步指出,藝術可以「將歐洲連結在一起,遠比商人或多愁善感者所能打造的更為緊密。這將給我們帶來源自理解的和平。」4充分領會這番說話後,我們會在來自西班牙和委內瑞拉的佛蘭明高舞之間、在不同藝術之間,以及在不同民族之間找到「無疆界」。我們渴望「一個世界」,這是我們的「一個夢想」--我們是一體的。

香港電台《藝坊星期天》:《無疆界佛蘭明高》精華片段及帕科.佩納(Paco Pena)訪問

The performers started in a semi-circle: dressed in white were singers, guitarists, and a drummer; in black were folk instrument players with their cuatro, mandolin, maracas, square drum, and cajon. White on the left and black on the right, the two sides took turns to play, rivaling each other.

They ended also in a semi-circle: only the standoff had ceased. The bodies in black and white were mixing together: dancing, playing, and singing amongst each other. Even the backdrop changed from white to red, green, blue, and yellow reminding me of an Olympic flag raising ceremony where over 200 flags blend into all colors of the rainbow beneath which athletes from all over the world gather to make a wish for people to unite.

In black and white were Spanish and Venezuelan artists, respectively, who performed Flamenco sin Fronteras at Tuen Mun Town Hall on 11 May 2012. The show was a reflection of the history between the two nations: at the turn of the 20th century, Spanish musicians, singers, and dancers arrived in South America where they discovered a rich local folklore. Captivated by the exotic Afro-Venezuelan ballads, they created new songs and dances named Flamenco de ida y vuelta (songs of departure and return). Thus flamenco, with its roots already spreading in diverse traditions spanning Indian, Arabic, and Spanish cultures, developed into an even richer art form. By the end of the show, the two peoples' music and dance - rather like the evolution of flamenco, became a natural blend and collaboration of movement, sounds, and an overall style.

That's why Paco Pena, who devised the show, entitled it Flamenco sin Fronteras (Flamenco without Borders). With the specific aim of blending music from two distant regions with colonial hostility into natural harmony, he enabled Spanish flamenco repertory and Afro-Venezuelan folklore to come together and complement each other. Pena, a renowned guitarist, travels extensively, staging his shows in England, Australia, Poland, Germany, Belgium, and the USA, transcending borders and connecting people.1

Mirroring his philosophy and artistic vision, sin fronteras (borderless) was the theme threaded through the show. I was struck and delighted by the underlying inter-connectedness between apparently unrelated elements, or parallels between opposing forces, slowly surfacing as the show progressed. Polar forces, as Chinese yin-yang philosophy suggests, only exist in relation to each other. They are not essentially contrary factors, but dualities that complement each other and interact within a greater whole, as part of a dynamic system. Just as light cannot exist without darkness and vice-versa, they are inherent in everything, everyone.2

Sin Fronteras was between male and female dancers: the bailaor boasts a strong frame highlighted by audacious shoulders held high, hips uplifted, buttocks locked. His head is always level, chin firm in bullfighter fashion, indicative of stature and dignity. Similarly, the bailaora dances with an arched back, supporting her proud chest and raising her center of gravity, to convey an air of aristocracy. Her lifted chin exhibits fierce energy that stems from freezing coldness vying against burning passion - flamenco's two defining qualities. Watching the pair in duet choreographed with identical movements for male and female, one realizes how akin they actually are - albeit of different genders, in appearance, emotion, and aura. After all, we're all humans who speak a universal body language.

Sin Fronteras was between joy and sorrow: the female lead Charo Espino, with her power to arrest the eyeballs and touch the hearts, is the epitome of flamenco. Her face is marked by curled lips and frowning brow - one cannot easily tell if she's in joy or sorrow; one can only vicariously experience her emotional intensity. With tapping heels, spiraling spine, twisting arms, shrugging shoulders, and clapping hands, she creates the strongest tension. Flamenco dancers are characteristically solemn and passionate, partially because Gypsy women, who originated the dance, possess extreme temperaments that range from intoxicating ecstasy to raw agony. The dance is also incredibly emotive. In fact, "the most successful flamenco dancers exhibit what is called duende, meaning literally fairy or goblin, which indicates an amazing grasp of the emotive flow. At this level of mastery, the dance becomes a visceral experience, pulling the audience in as though they were participants."3 Espino, happy or sad, has proven herself to be a master of this craft - her emotional contagion moves the audience in full swing regardless of differences in our languages and backgrounds.

Sin Fronteras was between dancers, musicians, and singers. Unlike other dance genres, flamenco artists frequently interact on stage even exchanging roles occasionally. Singers shout out "Olé" "Agua" and "Asi se toca" to dancers and musicians. At one time, the bailaor responds, and the two stage a mini courtship act filled with flirtation, argument, and reconciliation like two young lovers. As if provoked, the generously proportioned female singer even starts tap dancing! The three roles shuffle again in another scene: when the singer is performing an acoustic solo, the dancer accompanies with elaborate footwork, effectively turning tapping into a chorus. Such in-group interaction has proven to 'illuminate' the show; and the lack of it, dims. For instance, in the recent Swan Lake performed by Royal Swedish Ballet in Macau, the orchestra was criticized for "sounding disengaged" and "lacking dramatic tension" because the pit prevented such interaction. The pit aside, artists are generally subject to 'division of labor' because they are trained in individual disciplines. But why should any boundaries be drawn between them? Though specializing in different 'devices' - dancers in their bodies, musicians in their instruments, singers in their voices, are all artists who perform to entertain, delight, inform, and inspire.

Sin fronteras was between Western and Eastern dances. Counter-intuitive as it may sound, certain flamenco steps are reminiscent of the peacock dance in China, an ethnic genre that imitates the movements of peacocks. For example, when flamenco dancers snap their fingers rapidly and circle their wrists in all directions, they evoke the image of the 'peacock eye' gesture that depicts the bird looking around with sharp, expressive eyes: the thumb is tucked under the index finger and the other three fingers spreading in a fan shape to outline an eye. Also, when bailaoras swing their trajes de faralaes and shawls, their ruffles glide like albatross. Bearing striking resemblance are the peacock dance arm movements: trembling at first then extending smoothly to full length. This mimics the bird shaking and sunning its wings, showing off its exquisite tail in full spread before flying off into the sky. Albatross or peacock, they're both admired for their beauty and freedom. Spanish or Chinese, we all devote ourselves to pursuing beauty and freedom; dances - albeit diverse in forms, serve as vehicles that take us to the same destination.

These universal values - promoted by arts, know of no borders. In a world preoccupied with economic antagonism and political struggle, art becomes particularly relevant, if not urgent. She shuns self-interest and seeks common good, she ignores peripheral differences and upholds core humanity, she washes away conflicting pasts and looks toward shared dreams. Oscar Wilde asserts the power of art thus, "The change (brought along by art) will, of course, be slow, and people will not be conscious of it. They will not say 'We (Englishmen) will not war against France because her prose is perfect,' but because the prose of France is perfect, we will not hate the land." He further states that art can "bind Europe together in bonds far closer than those that can be forged by shopman or sentimentalist. It will give us the peace that springs from understanding."4 This thoroughly understood, we will find sin Fronteras between Spanish and Venezuelan flamencos, sin Fronteras between different arts and between different peoples. We long for 'one world', it is our 'one dream' - we are one

註Notes:

  1. 香港藝術節 2012 場刊。香港:香港藝術節協會有限公司。 2012。 Hong Kong Arts Festival 2012 House Program. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Arts Festival Society Ltd. 2012.

  2. 維基百科。Wikipedia. http://en.wilcipedia.org/wiki/Yin_and_yang. 2012.

  3. WiseGeek. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-flamenco-dancing.htm. 2012.

  4. Wilde, Oscar. Critical Writings of Oscar Wilde (Richard Ellmann, Editor). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1982.

客席編輯Guest Editor: 劉秀群Cathy Lau Sau Kwan | 翻譯Translation:施德安 Cecil Sze

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