[中][Eng] 創團之初的女子-香港舞蹈團35周年回望 WOMEN AT THE START-Reflecting on the 35th Anniversary of Hong Kong Danc



《大地之歌》The Song of the Earth,編舞Choreographer: 江青Chiang Ching,舞者

Dancers: 楊雲濤 Yang Yun-tao,蘇淑Su Shu

圖片由香港舞蹈團提供。Photo provided by Hong Kong Dance Company.


香港舞蹈團35年來獲得眾多優秀的舞者、傑出的作品與卓越的總監,成就舞團今日的風采。不計其他眾多獎項,僅過往8年間,舞團共取得4項香港藝術發展獎及19項香港舞蹈年獎—包括10項傑出舞蹈製作(包括整個製作的獎項及個別組別的獎項)及9項傑出舞蹈演出。回顧舞團的歷史,更顯得現今的成就超然卓越。大多頂尖國際舞團不但歷史悠久,而且早年均具目光長遠的領航人經年發展藝術成果;相反,香港舞蹈團在其簡短歷程中,已經歷了先後7名藝術總監,有時職位更告懸空,由署任或助理藝術總監暫司其職。以英國浪漫主義詩人威廉·華茲華斯的觀察「孩提乃成人之父祐」形容舞團實貼切之至,特別是早年兩位女子的領導,為舞團日後的成就奠定基礎。


Terrific dancers, great works, illustrious directors, the trifecta for success, have been Hong Kong Dance Company’s fortune for the past 35 years. In the last eight years alone, among other accolades, its artists and productions have garnered four Hong Kong Arts Development Council Awards and ninteen Hong Kong Dance Awards – ten for Outstanding Productions that include awards for overall productions as well as for individual elements for productions, and nine for Outstanding Performances. It’s a remarkable achievement especially when you consider that unlike many of today’s premiere international dance companies who had long-serving, strong visionaries at the helm during their formative years, during its relatively brief history, the Hong Kong Dance Company has had seven Artistic Directors – at times, the post of Artistic Director was even left vacant, with ‘Acting’ or ‘Assistant’ Artistic Directors filling in until an appointment was made. English Romantic poet William Wordsworth’s observation, “The child is father of the man” could be applied to the Hong Kong Dance Company, especially the impact two women had on its development. Their leadership in its early years helped set the stage for the Company’s future successes.


舞團1981年成立後委任美藉華裔編舞家及金馬獎影后江青(江)為其首位藝術總監(1982—1984)。生於北京的江自十歲起於剛成立的北京舞蹈學院接受專業訓練,至16歲舉家移民香港。60年代,她憑著擔任演員及編舞家,於港台影壇取得輝煌成就,並於1973年移居紐約,成立舞團巡演國際。舞團在江短暫的帶領下,其美學觸覺及實踐,擬定了其藝術風格的雛形,影響至今。江為表演季度訂立不同類型製作,包括長篇舞劇、中國古典舞蹈表演、中國少數民族土風舞之夜,以及綜合內地及本地編舞者的新作精選,拓闊了「中國」舞蹈的界限。


Founded in 1981, the Company appointed Chinese-American choreographer and Golden Horse Awards winning actress Chiang Ching (1982-1984) as its first Artistic Director. Beijing born Chiang, who trained professionally at the nascent Beijing Dance Academy from the age of ten, moved with her family to Hong Kong when she was 16-years old. After a highly successful career in Hong Kong and Taiwan films during the 1960s as lead actress and choreographer, Chiang moved to New York where in 1973 she established her own dance company that toured internationally. Her appointment and brief leadership of the newly formed Hong Kong Dance Company set its tone and established aesthetic sensitivities and practices that resonate to this day. Chiang instituted performance seasons with different types of productions including full-length dance dramas, Chinese classical dance shows, evenings of folk dances of China’s diverse minority groups, and mixed bills of new works from Mainland and local choreographers that stretched the boundaries of ‘Chinese’ dance.

江青 Chiang Ching

圖片由香港舞蹈團提供。Photo provided by Hong Kong Dance Company.


駐團兩年間,江推出超過30位編舞家的作品,當中舒巧、應萼定及梁國城更先後成為舞團未來的藝術總監;另包括香港現代舞先驅黎海寧、彭錦耀、潘少輝及曹誠淵,本地中國舞先驅何浩川及冼源,及香港演藝學院舞蹈學院創院院長胡善佳。她每季均會為舞團添注一至兩項自己的作品,其餘作品主要來自其他藝術家。往後總監大致跟隨此做法,可見舞團忠實反映香港及中國的多元文化,不困宥於單一藝術角度。另一項江影響至今的模板設定為編舞上的探索,及/或取材自多樣的中華素材,包括電影、文學、畫作及其他視覺藝術、神話、傳統戲曲,乃至傳統及現代音樂。


In the two years of her tenure, Chiang presented the works of over 30 choreographers in Company productions including dances by three of its future Artistic Directors, Shu Qiao, Ying E Ding, and Leung Kwok-shing, works by Hong Kong modern dance pioneers, Helen Lai, Sunny Pang, Pun Sui-fai, and Willy Tsao, and by future leaders in Hong Kong Chinese dance community Ho Ho-chuen and Sin Yuen, as well as by the founding Dean of the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts School of Dance, Carl Wolz. With Chiang contributing one or two pieces to the Company’s repertory each season and a preponderance of works coming from other artists, a practice largely followed by subsequent directors, the Company truly reflected the diversity of Hong Kong and Chinese cultures rather than a single artistic point of view. Other features of Chiang’s tenure that set the model for the Company’s future productions were choreographic explorations and/or integration of material from diverse Chinese sources including film, literature, painting and other visual arts, mythology, traditional opera, and traditional and contemporary music.


離任後,江繼續與舞團保持聯繫,為舞團再編三項作品,其中跨時代之作《大地之歌》(2002) 完美展示她的美學觀點,最為矚目。以古斯塔夫·馬勒《大地之歌》(1909)為基礎,編作出同名舞劇,由香港管弦樂團室樂團演奏,克斯蒂‧納比指揮, 聲樂家次女高音烏爾里卡‧坦斯塔姆及男高音莫華倫演唱,盧燕旁白,林璟如擔任劇場服裝及化妝設計師,莊喆作畫,江編舞並負責佈景及道具設計。馬勒將唐代詩人李白、錢起、孟浩然及王維詩作的德譯本融貫於他的聲樂套曲中;此製作中,江則請著名詩人鄭愁予將德文歌詞譯作中文,作六個樂章展開前之讀白。貫徹其音樂,舞蹈同樣映照生、死、與重生。文字、舞台設計與動作,均富含對自然的想像。江的動作,基於身體在扭動與推伸時產生立體的螺旋狀,及與其具對比之肢體在平面的拱曲 。舞蹈質樸而直接,作品的重心落於旁白、舞者與歌唱者各自的關係,與及他們與環境的關聯 。觀眾注意力受他們牽引,與他們產生聯繫。這非關於技巧造詣的展示,而在於他們的情感表現力。他們彼此連結,而我們則與他們產生聯繫,也因此能夠回應此作品所探索的宏大主題。


Chiang continued her association after stepping down as Artistic Director choreographing three works for the Company, most notable was her 2002 transcendent production of The Song of the Earth that epitomizes her aesthetic perspective. Set to Gustav Mahler’s 1909 Das Lied von der Erde with the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra Chamber Ensemble conducted by Kerstin Nerbe, sung by mezzo-soprano Unika Tenstam and tenor Warren Mok, narrated by Lisa Lu, with costume and make-up designs by Ling Jing-ru, paintings by Chuang Che, Chiang’s choreography, and her own set and props design. While Mahler incorporated German translations of Tang dynasty poems by Li Bo, Qian Qi, Meng Haoran, and Wang Wei into his song-cycle, for her production, Chiang had the German lyrics re-written and translated into Chinese by the renowned poet Cheng Chou-yu and used them as a narration introducing each of the work’s six movements. Like the musical work, the dance reflects on life, death, and rebirth. The text, stage setting, and movements are steeped in nature imagery. Chiang’s movement is based on the three-dimensional spiral of the body twisting in space and on the thrusting and two-dimensional arcing of limbs and the whole body used as a contrast to the spiral. The dance is unadorned, direct; the narrator, dancers, and singers, their relationships to each other and to their environment are at the heart of the work. Our attention is drawn to them, we connect with them, not because of displays of technical prowess, but because of their emotional expressivity; because they relate to each other, we relate to them, and are able to reflect as well on the great themes the work explores.


舒巧,舞團第二任及歷來任期最長的藝術總監(1986-1994)。她首次與舞團合作是於1982年其作品在舞團的《中國舞蹈精選》中演出,該節目共包含十位編舞家的作品。舒被譽為中國舞劇最重要、創新而多產的編舞家之一。生於上海的她自幼加入新安旅行團,並於中央戲劇學院習舞。60年代,擔演中國民族舞劇《小刀會》女主角周秀英一舉成名。於到任舞團前,舒巧於上海創作多個實驗性大型舞劇。1983年她為舞團策劃的《畫皮》,改編自清代作家蒲松玲《聊齋志異》中書生受厲鬼化身的美女迷惑的故事。在港掀起熱潮,重演四次, 於1991年演最後一次。