[中][Eng] 創團之初的女子－香港舞蹈團35周年回望 WOMEN AT THE START－Reflecting on the 35th Anniversary of Hong Kong Danc
《大地之歌》The Song of the Earth，編舞Choreographer: 江青Chiang Ching，舞者
Dancers: 楊雲濤 Yang Yun-tao，蘇淑Su Shu
圖片由香港舞蹈團提供。Photo provided by Hong Kong Dance Company.
Terrific dancers, great works, illustrious directors, the trifecta for success, have been Hong Kong Dance Company’s fortune for the past 35 years. In the last eight years alone, among other accolades, its artists and productions have garnered four Hong Kong Arts Development Council Awards and ninteen Hong Kong Dance Awards – ten for Outstanding Productions that include awards for overall productions as well as for individual elements for productions, and nine for Outstanding Performances. It’s a remarkable achievement especially when you consider that unlike many of today’s premiere international dance companies who had long-serving, strong visionaries at the helm during their formative years, during its relatively brief history, the Hong Kong Dance Company has had seven Artistic Directors – at times, the post of Artistic Director was even left vacant, with ‘Acting’ or ‘Assistant’ Artistic Directors filling in until an appointment was made. English Romantic poet William Wordsworth’s observation, “The child is father of the man” could be applied to the Hong Kong Dance Company, especially the impact two women had on its development. Their leadership in its early years helped set the stage for the Company’s future successes.
Founded in 1981, the Company appointed Chinese-American choreographer and Golden Horse Awards winning actress Chiang Ching (1982-1984) as its first Artistic Director. Beijing born Chiang, who trained professionally at the nascent Beijing Dance Academy from the age of ten, moved with her family to Hong Kong when she was 16-years old. After a highly successful career in Hong Kong and Taiwan films during the 1960s as lead actress and choreographer, Chiang moved to New York where in 1973 she established her own dance company that toured internationally. Her appointment and brief leadership of the newly formed Hong Kong Dance Company set its tone and established aesthetic sensitivities and practices that resonate to this day. Chiang instituted performance seasons with different types of productions including full-length dance dramas, Chinese classical dance shows, evenings of folk dances of China’s diverse minority groups, and mixed bills of new works from Mainland and local choreographers that stretched the boundaries of ‘Chinese’ dance.
江青 Chiang Ching
圖片由香港舞蹈團提供。Photo provided by Hong Kong Dance Company.
In the two years of her tenure, Chiang presented the works of over 30 choreographers in Company productions including dances by three of its future Artistic Directors, Shu Qiao, Ying E Ding, and Leung Kwok-shing, works by Hong Kong modern dance pioneers, Helen Lai, Sunny Pang, Pun Sui-fai, and Willy Tsao, and by future leaders in Hong Kong Chinese dance community Ho Ho-chuen and Sin Yuen, as well as by the founding Dean of the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts School of Dance, Carl Wolz. With Chiang contributing one or two pieces to the Company’s repertory each season and a preponderance of works coming from other artists, a practice largely followed by subsequent directors, the Company truly reflected the diversity of Hong Kong and Chinese cultures rather than a single artistic point of view. Other features of Chiang’s tenure that set the model for the Company’s future productions were choreographic explorations and/or integration of material from diverse Chinese sources including film, literature, painting and other visual arts, mythology, traditional opera, and traditional and contemporary music.
離任後，江繼續與舞團保持聯繫，為舞團再編三項作品，其中跨時代之作《大地之歌》(2002) 完美展示她的美學觀點，最為矚目。以古斯塔夫·馬勒《大地之歌》（1909）為基礎，編作出同名舞劇，由香港管弦樂團室樂團演奏，克斯蒂‧納比指揮， 聲樂家次女高音烏爾里卡‧坦斯塔姆及男高音莫華倫演唱，盧燕旁白，林璟如擔任劇場服裝及化妝設計師，莊喆作畫，江編舞並負責佈景及道具設計。馬勒將唐代詩人李白、錢起、孟浩然及王維詩作的德譯本融貫於他的聲樂套曲中；此製作中，江則請著名詩人鄭愁予將德文歌詞譯作中文，作六個樂章展開前之讀白。貫徹其音樂，舞蹈同樣映照生、死、與重生。文字、舞台設計與動作，均富含對自然的想像。江的動作，基於身體在扭動與推伸時產生立體的螺旋狀，及與其具對比之肢體在平面的拱曲 。舞蹈質樸而直接，作品的重心落於旁白、舞者與歌唱者各自的關係，與及他們與環境的關聯 。觀眾注意力受他們牽引，與他們產生聯繫。這非關於技巧造詣的展示，而在於他們的情感表現力。他們彼此連結，而我們則與他們產生聯繫，也因此能夠回應此作品所探索的宏大主題。
Chiang continued her association after stepping down as Artistic Director choreographing three works for the Company, most notable was her 2002 transcendent production of The Song of the Earth that epitomizes her aesthetic perspective. Set to Gustav Mahler’s 1909 Das Lied von der Erde with the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra Chamber Ensemble conducted by Kerstin Nerbe, sung by mezzo-soprano Unika Tenstam and tenor Warren Mok, narrated by Lisa Lu, with costume and make-up designs by Ling Jing-ru, paintings by Chuang Che, Chiang’s choreography, and her own set and props design. While Mahler incorporated German translations of Tang dynasty poems by Li Bo, Qian Qi, Meng Haoran, and Wang Wei into his song-cycle, for her production, Chiang had the German lyrics re-written and translated into Chinese by the renowned poet Cheng Chou-yu and used them as a narration introducing each of the work’s six movements. Like the musical work, the dance reflects on life, death, and rebirth. The text, stage setting, and movements are steeped in nature imagery. Chiang’s movement is based on the three-dimensional spiral of the body twisting in space and on the thrusting and two-dimensional arcing of limbs and the whole body used as a contrast to the spiral. The dance is unadorned, direct; the narrator, dancers, and singers, their relationships to each other and to their environment are at the heart of the work. Our attention is drawn to them, we connect with them, not because of displays of technical prowess, but because of their emotional expressivity; because they relate to each other, we relate to them, and are able to reflect as well on the great themes the work explores.