新鮮人2021_top banner 980x120 0722a.jpg

[中][Eng]從人體動作到自身學問 From Human Movement to Self-Knowledge

中文校訂Chinese Editing:劉詠芝 Iris Lau

(原文刊於2008年《舞蹈手札》第十冊第三期 Originally published on dance journal/hk 10-3 in 2008)

動作研究

The Study of Human Movement

每當我告訴朋友我對人「動」的現象 (phenomenon of human movement)甚感興趣,並且熱中於對它的研究時,他們總是報以困惑的目光,好像不明白我在說些什麼。為何人「動」的現象可以令人著迷?而研究人的動作又是怎麼樣一回事?

Whenever I tell my friends that I am quite fascinated with the phenomenon of human movement and am very enthusiastic about the study of it, they tend to look at me perplexed as if they do not understand what I am saying. Why is the phenomenon of human movement fascinating? And what is the study of human movement about?

當我們活動自如,行動並無任何障礙,一般也不會留意自己的動作,更談不上鑽研與否。但在此我想提醒各位,要珍惜能夠活動自如的這份福氣。假如我們失去了某程度上的活動能力,我想我們再也不會以為這能力是理所當然。就好像一個有腰痛的人,便會很留意自己的動作,以防一不小心,加劇痛楚。人生中極大的不幸,莫過於完全失去了活動能力。

For a normal and healthy adult with no problem doing any daily activity, one tends to overlook how one moves. It will even be harder to imagine the same person becoming interested in the phenomenon of human movement. Yet. I would like to remind those who can move freely with no limitations to really treasure this innate ability. If our ability to move freely is diminished, we will then not take our ability to move for granted. For example, a person with low back pain will become very conscious of how he moves in order not to trigger the pain. Losing our ability to move completely is one of the greatest misfortunes in life.

結構與功能

Structure and Function

身體的結構當然對於我們如何活動有決定性的影響。活動能力上的障礙,往往與結構上的問題相關。例如一個患有嚴重拇襄炎的人行走時會有困難。矯形手術或許是解決結構問題的方法,但假若我們要把這問題澈底根治,便必須找出問題的原因。在各種不同因素下,我們有需要從「功能」的角度——人走路的模式——來看這間題,亦即是要觀察這人慣性走路的方法。觀察一個人活動的模式,就是觀察他如何運用自己身體。因此動作研究是可以提供自身學問 (self-knowledge) 的途徑,特別在我們如何去運用身體。

The anatomical structure of the human body definitely plays an important role in how we are able to move. The diminishing of our ability to move often relates to some forms of abnormality in our anatomical structure. For example, a person with severe problem of bunion will have difficulty walking. Surgical operations in general will be employed as a remedy for structural problems. Yet for an ultimate remedy for the structural problem we need to find out the cause. Amongst the many factors, it is necessary to look at the problem from a functional viewpoint, which is the way the person walks. The habitual pattern of walking often sheds light on the cause of the problem. To look at how one moves is to look at the way one uses one's facility to act. The study of human movement offers insight go self-knowledge in particular with the way we use our body to move.

身體運用的慣性模式

Habitual Use of the Self

F·M·亞歷山大向一名女士應用其發展的亞歷山大技巧

F. Matthias Alexander practicing his own developed Alexander Technique with a lady.

有些時候,身體功能上的障礙不一定有相對結構上的問題。在這,我想引用一位身體運作研究的先驅者亞歷山大 (F. Matthias Alexander) 的一次親身體驗來支持這個論點。亞歷山大是十九世紀來的一個莎劇演員,但當他演出時,說話聲音總是變得嘶啞難聽。雖然做過了很多詳細的檢查,醫生們也找不出問題所在。在別無他法下,亞歷山大決定要自己找出原因。他透過一個三面的組合鏡子非常用心的自我觀察,終於發現到問題所在。他觀察到自己每當發聲時,便會急促地仰頭吸氣,把頭壓到頸和脊椎上。顯而易見,亞歷山大的問題並非是結構上之毛病,而是錯誤地運用身體。要糾正問題,便是糾正他運用身體的慣性模式。

Sometimes functional problems do not always have a tangible physical counterpart. This can be best illustrated by the example of the Shakespearean actor F. Matthias Alexander who first developed his bodywork technique in the last decades of the nineteenth century. He suffered from chronic hoarseness when performing. The medical experts were unable to provide him satisfactory solution to his problem since no physical defect with his vocal organs were detected. Eventually Alexander decided to solve the problem himself. Through painstaking self-observation with a three-way mirror, he discovered that his hoarseness was a result of misuse of his body. He noticed that whenever he attempted to project his voice, he gasped for air by pressing his head down onto the back of his neck and spine. It became clear that the way to solve his vocal problem was to correct his habitual use of his body with a more refined movement pattern.

人體動作的基本人性質

Basic Nature of Human Movement

亞歷山大的發現看似簡單,但卻提供了很多重要的觀點,幫助我們了解動作的一些基本性質 :

(1) 通常我們對如何運用身體來活動是不自覺的。我們普遍會很清晰的知道行動之目的,和卻不自覺「動」的過程。例如走路時會知道我們要去的目的地,但個中身體如何走路,卻是不自覺。

(2) 人與動物不同,我們一套套的動作模式並非與生俱來,而是從學習和不斷重複中培育出來。這些學習在我們出生初期尤其重要,嬰兒每天的主要活動,莫過於學習如何去活動他們的身體,和建立一套基本動作模式 (Movement Pattern) 。透過動作,嬰兒同時體驗自身和認知外在的世界。

(3) 從學習而得來的動作模式,就像電腦程式,儲存在我們的神經系統中。當我們要履行日常活動時,神經系統會自動從「程式倉庫」中記取基本組合,並把它們組織起來。這都是在潛意識中運作,故我們一般的行為和反應都不自覺地有它固有模式。這「設計」把生活簡化了,因此,學習過的東西無須再學,好讓注意力可以投放在別的事情上。