[中][ENG]輸出美國舞蹈 Exporting American Dance

放眼舞林 An Eye on Dance 輸出美國舞蹈 Exporting American Dance

Dance Heginbotham舞團將在SPOTLIGHT: USA 上演的作品《Principles of Uncertainty》

Dance Heginbotham’s Principles of Uncertainty, 2017 (to be performed at SPOTLIGHT: USA); 攝Photo: Christopher Duggan

每年一月,來至世界各地的主辦機構和節目總監都會來到嚴寒的紐約,欣賞多個充滿啟發性的藝術節節目,當中包括American Dance Platform、American Realness和Coil Festival,同時亦會出席一些業界會議。今年,我應邀出席了在這大都會舉行的國際表演藝術協會(ISPA)年度會議,和American Dance Abroad(ADA)的國際咨詢顧問委員會議。我於2014年獲ADA邀請參加他們主辨的American Dance Recon節而認識這個機構。這個以藝術家為本的組織十分獨特,這次行程我便訪問了兩位聯合創辦人——Andrea Snyder和Carolelinda Dickey,談談(ADA)現時的工作和願景。


Annually, international presenters and program directors travel to cold and snowy New York City in January to explore numerous stimulating Festivals including American Dance Platform, American Realness, and Coil Festival, and to attend industry meetings. This year I joined those travelling to the Big Apple to attend the International Society for Performing Arts (ISPA) Annual Congress and the American Dance Abroad (ADA) inaugural Advisory Council meeting. I’ve known ADA since 2014 when I was invited to join ADA’s American Dance Recon program that allowed me to explore the US dance scene in NYC with excitement. This artist-centered organization is unique and I interviewed the two co-founders: Andrea Snyder and Carolelinda Dickey during this trip to share information about their vision and projects.

陳(陳頌瑛):你們兩位不論在美國還是海外都有豐富的製作、籌辦及推廣舞蹈的經驗。為什麼你們會在2009年時成立ADA這個新組織呢?

AC (Anna Chan): Both of you already have an impressive career in dance and extensive experiences in producing, presenting, and promoting dance both in America and overseas, why did you want to start a new organization, American Dance Abroad, in 2009?


AES(Andrea Snyder):我們在八十到九十年代期間管理的各個紐約舞蹈團,都大大受益於國際巡迴演出。2000年開始,Carolelinda在Tanzmesse舞蹈博覽會(Tanzmesse)工作,而我則獲騁為Dance/USA的執行總監。當時我們開始注意到,美國舞團難以找到海外巡演的機會。其時美國並沒有派出代表團參與Tanzmesse。從2002年起,我和Carolelinda努力向美國的藝術家、經理人與籌辦者推廣Tanzmesse,並由他們的參與向國際社會介紹美國舞蹈的新概念。


AES (Andrea Snyder): The New York dance companies we managed in the 1980s and 1990s benefited greatly from international touring. In 2000, Carolelinda joined the staff of Internationale Tanzmesse and I was hired as the executive director of Dance/USA. We became acutely aware that American dance companies were struggling to find tours overseas. In fact, there was no American dance presence at that Tanzmesse. From 2002 on, Carolelinda and I worked together to populate Tanzmesse with American delegations of artists, managers, and programers that introduced new ideas and concepts about American dance to the international community.


CLD(Carolelinda Dickey):2000年的我剛參加Tanzmesse,當時我很抗拒為大型機構工作,更莫說要自己成立一間大機構。不過,可能是命運的安排,2000年那場舞蹈博覽會對於我確是個警號。我發現在我離開紐約後,並搬到匹茲堡當節目統籌的12年間,美國的國際舞蹈網絡將近瓦解了。當時Andrea剛剛開始在Dance/USA主席及執行總監的任期,我們便決定嘗試將美國編舞再次推上國際舞台並掀動討論。


CLD (Carolelinda Dickey): When I joined Tanzmesse in 2000, the last thing I wanted to do was work for a big institution and certainly had no wish to start one. But, as fate would have it, the 2000 Tanzmesse was indeed a wake-up call. I realized that in the 12 years since I had left NYC and been programing in Pittsburgh, the international network for American dance had largely collapsed. Andrea had just begun her tenure as president and executive director of Dance/USA, and together we decided to try and reignite the conversation and sought to reintroduce American choreographers onto the international scene.


AES:我們的行動成功說服了一個美國基金會向一項針對輸出美國舞蹈的策略研究提供資助,該研究報告已於2010出版。湊巧,當時我決定離開已工作了11年的Dance/USA,所以我們決定正式成立ADA,實踐報告中的部份策略。


AES: That led to convincing an American foundation to support the research and publication of a report focused on export strategies for American dance that was published in 2010. Serendipitously, when I was leaving Dance/USA after 11 years, we made our decision to formally launch American Dance Abroad and implement some of the strategies in the report.


Tanzmesse 2016 的 ADA代表團。American Dance Abroad’s delegation at Tanzmesse 2016. 圖片由ADA提供 Photo provided by ADA


陳:為甚麼美國舞蹈不再受注視?是因為系統/體制、舞蹈發展、作品、海外巡演的需求下降,抑或是經濟原因呢?為什麼?

AC: What caused the decline in American visibility, the system/structure, dance development, the work, the lack of need to tour overseas, or the economy? Why?


AES:其實有很多因素對美國舞蹈家和舞團的海外巡演機會造成的負面影響。美國沒有長期政策或機制去支持藝術家到海外巡演。而美國聯邦政府結構內沒有文化部,但國務院亦沒有大力支持本土文化項目。

美國新聞總署(USIA)在1990年代前是美國聯邦政府的一部份,並一直支持國際巡演。但當它被編入國務院後,就削減了國際巡演的資助和關注度。從二戰後到八十、九十年代期間,美國新聞總署仍大力支持國際巡演,藝術界被視為「文化大使」,並造就了不少在海外享負盛名的舞團,例如Merce Cunningham(梅西.簡寧漢)、瑪莎.葛蘭姆(Martha Graham)、艾文艾利(Alvin Ailey)和翠莎.布朗(Trisha Brown)。但自九十年代中期起,不論公營或私營機構方面都難以見到蓬勃的文化外交景象。

AES: There was a combination of factors that negatively impacted touring opportunities for American dance artists and companies. The U.S.A. does not have a consistent policy or mechanism to support artists touring abroad. We have no Ministry of Culture to support domestic cultural programs, nor a strong presence in the Department of State.


The U.S. Information Agency (USIA), an agency of the U.S. federal government that supported international touring until the 1990s, was folded into the U.S. State Department with less emphasis and funding to support touring. When the USIA was active, the arts were viewed as ‘cultural ambassadors’ post-World War II into the 1980s and 1990s, and it introduced many of the companies better known abroad, such as Merce Cunningham, Martha Graham, Alvin Ailey, and Trisha Brown. Since the mid-1990s, that view of cultural diplomacy does not prevail throughout the government and private philanthropy.


CLD:我認為我們正受兩個非常重大的因素影響。首先,作為一個在美國的舞蹈籌辦者,我每季都籌辦很多受到當地政府慷慨支持的外國舞團的節目。由於美國的藝術家並沒有政府資助,所以難以到國外演出。第二,民族主義抬頭導致其他國家(特別是歐洲)在文藝發展上與美國的舞蹈出現美學分歧。我們覺得歐洲的舞蹈落伍,而美國的舞蹈對於很多歐洲人來說一樣老土。此外,由於歐洲舞團的巡演能獲取資助,他們的美學迅速影響了亞洲和拉美國家的舞蹈,進一步孤立美國舞蹈。


CLD: I think we suffered from two very important factors. First, as an American dance presenter, I programed many international companies each season and received generous support from their governments. Our companies could not reciprocate since we do not have those financial supports for artists. Second, the rise of nationalism in cultural development in other countries, especially in Europe, led to an aesthetic divide between the dance of the U.S. and Europe. European dance looked old fashioned to us and American dance looked old fashioned to many Europeans. Additionally, since European companies were being subsidized to tour their work, an aesthetic quickly influenced the development of dance in Asian and Latin American countries, further isolating American dance.


CONTRA-TIEMPO舞團將在SPOTLIGHT: USA 上演的作品《Agua Furiosa

CONTRA-TIEMPO's Agua Furiosa (to be performed at SPOTLIGHT: USA); 攝Photo: Steve Wylie