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[中][ENG] 與盧綽蘅對話II:受傷與徬徨之間

文字整理:余曉彤


攝 Photo: Worldwide Dancer Project (照片由余曉彤提供 Photo provided by Heidi Yu)


余:當年我在內地專業芭蕾舞訓練期間,身體條件好、能吃苦的強者才能繼續發展,容易受傷、意志力薄的弱者自然被行業淘汰。近年全球舞蹈業界對預防傷患和健康習舞的興趣和關注有所增長,與以往的環境相比有很大的進步。當然即使我們盡力確保習舞的環境合適,科學地計劃循序漸進的訓練,也不能100%避免傷患。你可否和我們分享,當運動員或舞者因傷患陷入低潮、被情緒困擾時,你會給予甚麼幫助和建議?


盧:文獻嘗試用不同的傷患類型(injury models)來解釋受傷後情感經歷的種種變化。包括當舞者受傷經歷較少時,開頭可能無法接受,甚至否定曾發生過受傷這件事;隨後的情緒可能是比較煩躁、生氣、憤怒,覺得「何必當初呢」、「早知比賽當日提前做多點拉筋,就不會這樣受傷啦」等思前想後的念頭;然後到康復進展良好時,才接受經歷過受傷的事實。坊間上各個心理學派,對受傷後經歷不同的心理變化有不同的看法,以上便是其中的一個例子。當然文獻和學派都是用作參考,因為真實個案都各有不同,我個人不會太過依賴,最主要看當刻運動員或舞者正在經歷哪個階段,面對情感上怎樣的變化,從而對症下藥。

余:一般討論傷患時,只會聯想到運動量過大或者急性扭傷等肢體上的因素。有研究則表示,壓力與傷患是有相關性的,當一個人處於高壓力下或者過勞(burnout)時,受傷的機率亦會有所遞增。在你的經驗裡,這些說法是否常見呢?


盧:壓力有可能是最開初的其中一個元素。可能是家中發生了事情,或者學校有很多功課,當需要顧及的事情較多或煩惱較多時,人就比較難集中,做動作時可能會產生較多的錯誤、睡眠質量下降、精神不足等,全部都直接影響注意力和判斷。平時可以觀察整個舞台,但當疲累、緊張、壓力大、難以集中時,視野會變窄。這樣就較難顧及一個大的範圍,導致出現錯誤的次數增加,受傷的機率也增大。其中一個傷患模型被稱為壓力傷患模型(stress injury model),形容的正是這種情況。


余:請問如何能夠避免這種情況發生呢?


盧:可以通過心理技能訓練(psychological skills),教你集中注意力。譬如要踏上舞台,你能否將生活上煩惱、壓力大的事情忘卻,或暫擱一旁呢?曾經有運動員和我分享他的例子,生活的事情和思緒常常令他感到混亂,但當上到球場時,他就會將日常的擔憂放到一個想像的垃圾桶內——這個大垃圾桶是綠色的,就在球場的線外。這有助他將注意力完全轉移到球場賽事上。或可以在準備上場表演前,把煩惱的問題在腦海寫到一張紙上,然後大力地丟進垃圾桶。利用以上這些意象工具(imagery tools),去嘗試幫助自己。


余:這些練習雖然不能直接幫你解決壓力,但能協助你在關鍵時刻集中注意力,不任由壓力影響表現。另外我想請教,當舞者不幸受傷而無法完全參與課堂,只能坐在旁邊觀看,你建議如何能令他/她繼續成為課堂的一分子呢?


盧:這個問題超級好。受傷後未能融入課堂、與同伴一起舞動,那種很孤單、被遺忘的感覺,是身為舞者常會擔憂的其中一個問題。我建議老師可以佈置任務給受傷的舞者,譬如他腳傷了,只能坐著看課,老師可以邀請他幫忙,哪怕是很簡單的事情例如點名,讓他覺得自己仍然有參與課堂;或者邀請他變身為教學助手,幫忙檢查同學們是否完成動作的要求,又可以負責解釋一個動作等這類型的小任務。如果老師未能抽身去關注受傷舞者和佈置任務,舞者自己亦可以主動複習舞步,在課堂整個過程中擔當或者扮演其他的身份或角色。


余:假如面對一些需要長時間才能康復的嚴重傷患,康復後舞者害怕再次做與受傷當時相似的動作,又應如何幫助他克服恐懼和陰影呢?


盧:整體來說恐懼源於不確定性。因為有未來、未知的事情,令我產生不安的感覺,便導致恐懼。害怕做同樣動作會再次受傷,是因為我們不確定是否能正確地處理,例如落地的姿勢是否有把握等。所以當重新練習技巧時,我們需要營造更高的確定性,每一步都熟悉至變為常規。老師亦需恰當地反饋,做得好的地方就即時指出,讓舞者重新建立自信,而不能只指出錯處。


余:這樣他們便能在老師的輔助下,重新培養對自己做這個動作的信心。


盧:正確。若舞者有同步進行物理治療,可請物理治療師分享康復進度,這些資訊能幫助舞者增加對未來時間的安排和計劃的確定性。舞者亦可以嘗試在康復期間訂立短期的小目標,以一星期為限期,這可包括心理和生理上想做到的事情。譬如這星期我想照顧自己的情緒,而下星期我想慢慢嘗試增加雙腳走路的時間,感受著地的知覺。這樣一步一步地主動讓自己看見進展,重建自信。


A Conversation with Karen Lo: Between injury and uncertainty

Text: Heidi Yu

Translator: Pomny Au


Yu: When I was doing my professional ballet training in Mainland China, I saw that people whose bodies were in good physical condition and who were resilient emotionally, could continue to develop while those who were prone to injuries and lacked mental fortitude would be naturally eliminated from the industry. In recent years the international dance industry has been increasingly interested in and concerned about injury prevention and healthy dance practice. Compared to the past, there has been a lot of improvement. However, even if we ensure a suitable environment for dance practice, and a scientific, measured approach to training, we cannot completely avoid injuries. Could you share with us some help and advice for athletes and dancers who are feeling down and troubled because of injury?


Lo: Academic research tries to use different ’injury models’ to explain changes in the emotional experience which follows being injured. For example, dancers who have little experience of injury may not accept the fact that they are injured, or even deny it has happened. They may become agitated, angry, infuriated, feeling “Why did this have to happen right at the start?”, or “If I had done more preparation and stretching before the competition, I would not have got hurt.” It is when they are recovering that they start to accept the fact that they have been injured. There are various schools of psychology that offer different perspectives on the psychological changes after getting hurt. The above is one example. Of course this kind of academic theory is for reference only and because in real life cases differ, I personally don’t rely on it. The most important thing is to look at what athletes or dancers are going through at this moment and what kind of emotional changes they are facing, so as to give them the right therapy.


Yu: When we talk about injury, we usually think of physical issues like excessive exercise or sprains. However, studies have shown that injuries are related to stress. When a person is stressed or burnt out, they are more likely to get injured. Do you think this is the case?

Lo: Stress may be one of the initial factors. Say there is a problem in the family, or a lot of work at school. When there are too many things to deal with or there are problems, it’s harder to concentrate. People tend to make mistakes in movements, sleep badly or have low energy levels, factors which affect their concentration and judgement. Under normal circumstances, you can keep everything in perspective but when you are tired, tense and have difficulty concentrating, your field of vision will narrow. You have too much to cope with and end up making more mistakes and becoming prone to injury. One of the injury models, the so-called ‘stress injury model’ describes exactly this situation.


Yu: How can we avoid such incidents happening?


Lo: We can use psychological skills to train ourselves to concentrate. Before going on stage, can you put aside or forget about your troubles and stress? An athlete once told me that he felt a lot of confusion about things in his life. However, when he went on to the court, he imagined that there was a big green rubbish bin outside the court. He put all his worries into the bin so that he could concentrate on the game. You can also write your problems on an imaginary piece of paper before a performance, and throw the paper into the bin. You can use these imagery tools to help you.


Yu: Even if these tools cannot get rid of your stress, they can help you to concentrate at the right moments without stress affecting you. Another point: when dancers are injured and cannot participate fully in class, is there a way for them to be involved instead of having to just sit and watch?


Lo: That’s an excellent question. When dancers can’t engage or interact with others in class because of injuries,the feeling of being alone and isolated is one of the things they often worry about. I suggest that teachers assign tasks to the injured dancers. If a dancer has a leg injury and can only sit in class, the teacher can involve him or her by inviting them to help . It could be something as simple as taking roll call, or the injured dancer could act as a teaching assistant and check if other participants have completed the required tasks, or explain a dance move to them. If the teacher doesn’t take the time to pay attention to injured dancers and give them things to do, they can take the initiative themselves to review dance steps or take up other roles during class.


Yu: If dancers have serious injuries that take a long time to heal, and after recovering are afraid of performing steps similar to the ones that caused their injury, how do you help them to overcome this fear?


Lo: Generally, fear comes from uncertainty. Faced with the unknown, people become uneasy and feel afraid. You fear that you will get hurt doing the same steps again because you are uncertain if you can execute the steps correctly. For example, you may not be sure if you can handle landing a jump properly. When you practise the same technique again, you need to nurture your sense of certainty, doing the steps repeatedly until they become routine. Teachers should also give appropriate feedback. They should point out what the dancers have done well to make them feel confident again instead of just pointing out their mistakes.


Yu: So that way, with support from the teacher, the dancers can re-build their confidence in doing the same steps.


Lo: Correct. If the dancers are having physiotherapy at the same time, they can ask the physiotherapist to keep them informed of how their recovery is progressing. This information helps the dancers to make plans and schedule their time with greater certainty. They can also try to set themselves small, short-term goals during recovery. The goals can span one week, including things they can achieve both mentally and physically. For example, this week you may want to focus on taking care of your emotions. Next week, you may do more walking, letting your feet feel the ground more. This enables you to gradually see improvements and build up your self-confidence.




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盧綽蘅

香港運動及表現心理學家,分別於香港大學和美國波士頓大學取得社會科學學士(心理學)及運動心理學碩士學位。她的主要興趣為表現優化、學生運動員身份認同的顯著性、動機、心理抗逆力和教練心理學。


Karen Lo

Sports and Performance Psychologist in Hong Kong. Graduated from the University of Hong Kong with Bachelor of Social Science (Psychology) and Boston University in the USA with Master of Sports Performance Psychology. Her major interests are improving performance, the significance of sports student identity, motivation, psychological resilience and coaching psychology.

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