[中][ENG]「他們,不是一個」,與差異共存-記Xavier Le Roy 工作坊 “They are not one” and coexistence with differences- not


工作坊一 Workshop 1; 攝Photo: 張志偉 Cheung Chi-wai; 圖片由西九文化區提供 Photo provided by West Kowloon Cultural District

今天展覽跟表演藝術分野模糊,跨界合作,早是尋常,美術館或商業畫廊不時成為舞蹈展演及行為藝術的實驗場域,但如何不只是一場耍弄剪貼魔法的奇觀?對舞者來說,沒有四牆所限,有何新意?我更好奇的是,舞蹈作品的公共性及劇場性,當觀演時間和空間在本質上都有變異時,可以跟觀者建立更有趣的關係嗎?可以跟觀眾共享怎樣的美感經驗?只是表面的肢體互動?一場善意的邀請?一次自以為是的挑釁?觀眾的能動力有機會被釋放嗎?今年一月1 ,有幸參加了Xavier Le Roy(Xavier)在港的工作坊,對編舞者如何編構舞者、觀者、空間、身體及主體性之間的微妙關係,多了想像及理解。


Exhibitions and performing arts are hard to distinguish from each other these days, as interdisciplinary cooperation is common. Instead of ending up with merely a spectacle of magic, how can art museums and commercial galleries become the experimental arenas for dance performances and performance arts? Without the limitations of a ‘fourth wall’, what are the new ideas for dancers? What I wonder about more concerns the publicity and theatricality of dance productions: is it possible to develop a more interesting relationship with the audience when the performing time and space are changed in nature? What kinds of aesthetic experience can we share with the audience? Will it just be a superficial physical interaction, a well-meant invitation, or, a concerted provocation? Can the power of the audience be released? In January 1, I was honored to have joined a workshop given by Xavier Le Roy (Xavier) in Hong Kong, which stimulated my imagination and understanding on how choreographers construct subtle relationships among dancers, audience, space, body, and subjectivity.

Xavier是著名的法國編舞及舞蹈藝術家,最近在世界各地的美術館都有演出,如紐約現代藝術博物館、波士頓當代藝術館、臺北市立美術館等等。他經常和Jerome Bel一起被各地媒體納入「non-dance」的大傘下;當然,他相當抗拒這種簡易的歸納再分類的方法,因為主體建構(Subjectification)是他核心的關注,常以差異突破統整。自然地,他也不喜歡跨界一類字眼,因為承認了跨界,也就承認了既定的框界。


Xavier is a renowned French choreographer and dance artist who has performed in art museums worldwide, such as the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston, and the Taipei Fine Arts Museum. He is frequently considered under the “non-dance” umbrella together with Jerome Bel by global media. He is, for sure, very resistant to this simple generalization and classification, since subjectification is his core concern, and his stress on diversity always comes though integration. Naturally, he also dislikes words like ‘cross-border’, as admission of ‘cross-border’ implies recognition of the border.



舞者的問題意識

Dancers’ awareness of questions

「問題」兩個字,是在工作坊聽得最多的。Xavier多次說,他創作前得先建構一個好問題(formulate a good question)。是的,回看他的作品,指向清楚,每每把問題意識注入身體,以身體提問,時而指向舞蹈本身,基要地問:為何動?身體如何動態地在特地的社會文化脈絡下被生產及污染?舞作又如何在特定的文化生態及市場下被放置?動作和音樂的關係,觀眾和表演者的主體及客體有沒有轉化可能,肉身和機器的關係,分離的界線在哪等等。說來似是概念先行,但其實,清清明明,用身體來作為探究的方法,以動作來建構及回應問題。


‘Question’ is the most frequently heard word in the workshop. Xavier repeatedly says that he had to formulate a good question before creating art work. With his injection of an awareness of questions into the body, we can find the direction of movements are clear when we review his previous work. Several fundamental questions that point to the nature of dance are raised with the body: Why move? How is the body dynamically produced and contaminated under specific social and cultural contexts? What are the positions of dance productions in certain cultural ecologies and markets? Is it possible to convert the relationship between movements and music, as well as the subject-object relationship of the audience and performers? What is the relationship between bodies and machines? Where is the line separating them set? Concept seemingly comes first, but in fact, the body is used as a medium for exploration, with the movements being the formulation and response to the questions.


有趣是,問問題也是工作坊重點。每天早上,廿來位參加者,穿著厚厚的衣服,夾著寒風,帶著問題,圍成小圈,熱切地討論有關舞蹈及創作的諸種問題。


Interestingly, asking questions was also the focal point of the workshop. Every morning, about twenty participants bundled themselves up and formed a group in a small circle, earnestly discussing questions about dances and creative works in the face of the piercing wind.


Xavier言行合一,他尊重個體的差異(包括沉默),敏於事、強分析、善聆聽,平等、開放、持續的對話及交流成為可能。我們談及的問題很多很多,如「how becomes why」的創作基要選擇,這不只是概念上討論形式和內容的張力,而是具體針對美術館的脈絡,在時空都被定式後,舞者如何去佔領特定的情境?如果有心要去跟觀眾分享,如何找方法?他的選擇是:令觀眾一起參與作品的生成過程(be in the process of doing something with audience),作品不是一件已完成的作品,觀眾不能只停在「看」(watching),而需要生產(producing),過程中,觀眾無法確認些甚麼,得要去轉化、理解自己在看甚麼,找自己解讀的方法。這個做法,對我而言,有趣的不在當中的「互動」。事實上,有很多劇場及視藝創作人都在做類似的作品,但卻沒有Xavier如此認真看待「觀眾」的生產力,那是基於對人的信任、對觀眾有權力去尋找、翻譯、開展自己的閱讀及建/解碼的旅程的肯定,也似是暗合了洪席耶(Jacques Rancière)所說解放觀眾的可能性不再著眼於知識的再現,而是權力的實踐。


Xavier is a man who practices what he preaches. He respects individual differences, which include being silence; he is also a sensitive and analytic good listener, which allows him to sustain an equal and open conversation and exchange. We touched many questions, for instance, the fundamental choice of taking “how becomes why” as focus in an art work. This is not a conceptual tension of the form and content of discussion, rather a concrete aim at the context of art museums: how can dancers take up particular circumstances when the time and space is set? How to find ways to share with the audience? Xavier chooses to be in the process of doing something with the audience. A production is more than a finished work. The audience cannot only remain in the process of ‘watching’; they have to move to the next step of ‘producing’. They may not be able to confirm a thing during that process and therefore, they have to understand what they are watching and discover their own interpretation by transforming. I am not interested in the element of ‘interaction’ in his choice; in fact, plenty of theater artists and visual artists are doing this. What they lack is Xavier’s deep regard for the productivity of the audience, which is based on the trust in people, as well as the affirmation of the audience’s power to look for, translate and, start their own journey in reading and decoding. This also seems to coincide with the theory of Jacques Rancière: the possibility of emancipating the spectators no longer focuses on the intellectual reconstruction, but the praxis of power.

Xavier的作品《Retrospective》是很好的說明,形式就是內容,它善用美術館white cube 四正又打通的空間,有一個容讓變化而又固定的「機制」:展場四角輪番有不同的身體呈現:固定的身體雕塑、重覆不斷的機械人動作、兩段舞者自由地從Xavier在1999年的演講及演出《Product of Circumstances》中取材的動作,變奏成為自己作為舞者/創作人的回顧展演。就動作而言,同一框架,卻是「body-specific」的— —十來個不同身體,就是十來個存在的個體,展說不同的故事,套Xavier的話,不要「same difference」。就時間而言,只有一位自選回顧的舞者可以決定展演長短,其他三組動作會因應不同觀者進場而突變,也有跟觀者互動的時間。因此,同一時間,觀者有機會看到固定又流動的風景,需要很長時間才可以看盡不同的故事。換句話,觀者的去留時間決定了自己的觀賞經驗,就似一口氣翻看幾本看不完的身體的書,而且不用順序,也可用不同的角度及位置去細味。


Retrospective is a prominent example explaining that form is content. Taking advantage of the open cubic space of White Cube, a fixed ‘mechanism’ allowing changes is founded. The four corners of the area with dancers with different body expressions. With still body sculpture, repeating robotic moves and two sets of movements drawn from a lecture performance of Xavier’s in 1999, Product of Circumstances, the production becomes the dancers’ retrospective performance as a dancer or a creator. In terms of the movements, they are within a framework, yet body-specific. About ten different bodies tell various stories about ten extant individuals . In Xavier’s words, that is what the unacceptable “same difference” is. In terms of time, only the dancer can determine the duration of the performance, the other three groups of movements may change according to the entry of thr audience. As a result, the audience can appreciate stationary yet also moving scenes at the same time, requiring a long time to read all the stories. In other words, the audience decides their own viewing experience with the length of their stay. As if reading never-ending books of the bodies without following the order, they can savor every moment of the performance from different angles and positions.


Xavier Le Roy; 攝Photo: 張志偉 Cheung Chi-wai; 圖片由西九文化區提供 Photo provided by West Kowloon Cultural District

劇場性及公共性

Theatricality and Publicity


Xavier提醒我們要提問劇場本身的運作,作品會否讓觀眾細想自己有甚麼動作是被社會規範的,如觀賞的位置、方式、跟作品的距離、思考作品邏輯等等。在他而言,這不是有沒有民主的問題,而是「有多少」及「如何有民主」的問題。空間條件及社會制約如何容讓觀演進行。觀眾及舞者在當中如何調節及協商是重點。而觀眾不只是暴露在公共空間的一群人,而是有個性的個體,恰巧此時此地成為集體。