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[中][ENG] 專訪中國國家芭蕾舞團馮英-跨越文化與傳統 Leaping Across Cultures and Conventions: An Interview with Feng Ying, National Ballet of China

馮英於八十年代飾《天鵝湖》中的黑天鵝。Feng Ying as Black Swan in Swan Lake in the 1980s.

 圖片由中芭提供 Photo provided by National Ballet of China

設計Design: Kay Leung, Stephen Chow@ARTZONE

 

今年6月初,中國國家芭蕾舞團(中芭)來港演出,帶來《吉賽爾》與選段集錦《芭蕾盛會》,為香港回歸二十週年紀念活動之一,演出迅速爆滿一票難求。

 

Early this June, in celebration of the 20th anniversary of Hong Kong’s handover, The National Ballet of China (NBC) visited Hong Kong with Giselle and a mixed bill, Ballet Gala. Tickets sold out quickly.

 

近年來,中芭在世界舞台上漸露頭角,古典舞碼如《天鵝湖》被讚為達到世界一流水準,巡演不斷;而其富中國文化特色的原創舞作如《大紅燈籠高高掛》、《牡丹亭》等在演出後也激起熱烈討論。

 

In recent years, NBC has made its presence known on the world stage. Its classical ballets, such as Swan Lake, have been acclaimed “world-class”, and continue to tour.  The Company’s original works with rich Chinese cultural characteristics such as Raise the Red Lantern and The Peony Pavilion have generated vigorous discussion following their premières.

 

在中芭現任團長、藝術總監馮英的眼中,不論是在古典芭蕾的路上後起直追、迎難而上,還是在現當代創作中敞開胸懷、兼容並包,這個1959年創團的中國芭蕾第一團,一直在用自己的方式默默打造經典。

 

With Feng Ying as its current director and artistic director, China’s first ballet company, NBC, which was founded in 1959, has made its own way in negotiating the difficulties of producing work, both in keeping abreast of classical ballet’s footprints, and in staying open-minded to contemporary and modern productions. 

中國國家芭蕾舞團團長馮英 Feng Ying, Director and Artistic Director of National Ballet of China

 圖片由中芭提供 Photo provided by National Ballet of China

 

傳承

Inheritance

 

說起來,中芭與香港緣分匪淺,其中一齣戲寶《紅色娘子軍》就曾多次訪港演出,這次亦以選段表演再現舞台。馮英記起早年時該劇來港,自己仍是台上演員,當時觀眾反應出乎意外,「 非常爆」。「 一個藝術作品能夠充滿活力,可能就是因為有不同的人在演繹它,而且每個階段都有自己的特色。」芭蕾舞劇《紅色娘子軍》誕生於1964年,至今,時代迥異,劇中演員也經歷數代更迭,劇目卻仍經演不衰,足見其魅力。在馮英看來,每一代的創作者,都為作品注入了新的養分和時代特徵,今日的「 娘子軍」,既有首創時昂揚的精氣神,又有當代的時尚感,「帶有年輕人對那個故事深刻理解之後的二次創作,是鮮活的。」

 

There has been an enduring connection between NBC and Hong Kong.  For instance, The Red Detachment of Women, one of NBC’s classic works, has been shown in Hong Kong many times.  This time, audiences were given selected excerpts.  Feng recalls that, in some of the earlier visits to Hong Kong while she was still one of the dancers on stage, she was surprised by the audience’s “very vigorous” reaction.  “Perhaps, the vitality of an artwork lives in the different performances by different artists; each chapter has its own character.” The Red Detachment of Women premièred in 1964.  Since then, times have changed but the work maintains its vibrancy, a solid proof of its appeal.  Every generation of creators contributes new energy and the spirit of their times to the work.  Today, The Red Detachment of Women bears the spirit of the original work, and it is also modern, “It carries the secondary creation by the young people who have an immense understanding of its story.  Because of this, the story is alive."  

 

《紅色娘子軍》The Red Detachment of Women

 圖片由中芭提供 Photo provided by National Ballet of China

 

馮英於八十年代飾《紅色娘子軍》中的吳瓊花。
Feng Ying as Wu Qionghua in The Red Detachment of Women in the 1980s.
圖片由中芭提供 Photo provided by National Ballet of China

 

《紅色娘子軍》的故事發生在二十世紀三十年代的海南島,從惡霸南霸天家中逃出的丫鬟瓊花,在紅軍的幫助下,經過重重考驗,最終成長為堅定的革命戰士。這故事有著當時時代的鮮明印記,似乎離今日的生活很遙遠,但馮英認為,若只以「 樣板戲」或「 紅色經典」去理解該劇未免太過狹窄,劇中所表達的革命激情,放到今天仍然切中人生的命題。「 現在也要革命呀,要激情,要熱情,每個人要向自己的命運去抗爭。一個人在任何時候都有那種改變自己命運的訴求,不斷地奮鬥,不斷地改變命運,追求理想和信念,這其中更多的是這種精神的東西。我們在墨爾本演出時,有評論家曾說它其實是鼓勵一批年輕人更加有社會責任,他們是這樣來看這個劇的。它激發年輕人的力量和作用,不亞於當年米高・福金或者是瑪莎‧葛蘭姆對後人的影響。」

 

The story of The Red Detachment of Women takes place on Hainan Island in the 1930s.  After escaping from the home of the despotic landlord Nan Batian, the maid Qionghua, with help from the Red Army, becomes a dedicated warrior after overcoming numerous challenges.  The story had a strong impression on its era, which makes it seem distant from today’s lives.  However, Feng Ying points out that it would be too narrow-minded for one to understand this work only from a ‘model drama’ or a ‘communist classic’ perspective.  The passion for revolution expressed in the story still resonates with life issues encountered today.  “We still need revolution today, we need passion, we need enthusiasm, everyone needs to contest his or her fate.  A person can quest for change in his or her fate anytime, struggle endlessly, chase dreams and beliefs, more of it is on the spiritual level.  When we were playing it in Melbourne, a commentator said that it was an encouragement for young people to take up more social responsibilities, they saw the story this way.  And they also thought that it could ignite the power of, and have an impact on young people no less than Mikhail Fokine and Martha Graham’s influence on the younger generation.”

 

比起其內容精神,《紅色娘子軍》的創作形式更可堪玩味。它開創了「中國特色芭蕾」的先河,將西方芭蕾與中國戲曲、武術、歌曲、民樂等等多種表演元素相融合,開啟了中芭打造民族特色芭蕾舞作品的大門。其後的《沂蒙頌》、《祝福》、《林黛玉》、《黃河》、《梁祝》、《過年》,到近年驚艷國際的《大紅燈籠高高掛》、《牡丹亭》,以及最新的《鶴魂》等,無一不在實踐其對「東西文化融合」的嘗試。

 

Compared to its content and spirit, the form of The Red Detachment of Women has an even greater potential.  It established and opened-up the ‘Chinese-style ballet’, combining Western ballet with performance elements such as those from Chinese opera, martial arts, songs, and folk music.  The works that came afterwards, including Song of the Yimeng Mountain, The New Year Sacrifice, Dream of the Red Chamber, Yellow River, Butterfly Lovers, The Chinese New Year, more recently Raise the Red Lantern, and The Peony Pavilion that amazed the world, and the latest ones like The Crane Whisperer; all are attempts to fuse Eastern and Western cultures. 

 

 

 

跨越 
Leaping

 

「 在我看來,所謂的民族特色就是東西方文化本來就屬於自己的特點。」馮英說:「 比如說西方文化崇尚上帝,於是人或者芭蕾藝術就是要不斷向上,是要和上帝交流。而我們中國則更多地是接近大地,我們的情懷更多的是大地呀,母親呀。我們的文化背景、文化習慣和生活習慣方方面面都不同。中華民族的情懷中講很多的包容,所謂『 仁義禮智信』那是傳統文化中我們的特色。」創造民族特色的芭蕾,是要把民族的氣節、歷史,或是當今中國的人文精神和人文情懷融入其中,透過作品表達中國、呈現時代。「 通過芭蕾這個國際化的語言,來向世人介紹我們的民族。」

 

"To me, what we call ‘ethnic characteristics’ means the characteristics that the Eastern and Western cultures possess,"  Feng Ying commented.  “For example, Western culture worships the God.  That is why their people and their ballet aim upwards to communicate with the God. Chinese culture has a deep emotional tie with the earth and we have more feelings towards mother earth, we have different cultural backgrounds, practices, and lifestyles.  “Kindness, righteousness, courtesy, wisdom, integrity”, these are the characteristics of our convention.”  To create ballet with ethnic characteristics, is to infuse the work with the spirit and history of the ethnicity, or the humanism of contemporary China; to present China and the era through the work.  “To introduce our ethnicity to the world, using the global language of ballet."
 

中芭歷史上,不同時代不同的編導,會有不同的題材選擇與思考,有人喜歡歷史,有人鍾情「紅樓」,馮英認為,這其中難以尋找一種固定的創作模式,不同作品不可劃一而論。當年的《紅色娘子軍》電影發表後,之所以會選擇改編為芭蕾舞劇,其中一個原因亦是因為芭蕾善於表現女性,在這點上與題材契合。而到了《大紅燈籠高高掛》,恰恰是它看來並不適合芭蕾,卻因為張藝謀所擅長的視覺衝擊而帶來顛覆感。「這都是我們在借鑑西方的芭蕾語彙創新時的不同實驗和創新,而這些嘗試的路向因人而異。」

 

Throughout NBC’s history, directors at different times made their own choices and had their own thoughts about topics; some were fond of history and others fell for The Story of the Stone (also called Dream of the Red Chamber).  Feng Ying found it difficult to name a unified form of creation.  Therefore, there is no single theory.  The Red Detachment of Women was adapted to ballet after its release in theaters as a film.  Part of the reason for this adaptation was that ballet is good at presenting the female, which corresponded with the topic.  For Raise the Red Lantern, although it did not seem suitable for ballet, Zheng Yimou’s specialty of visual impact enabled it to subvert expectations.  "All these are our attempts to experiment and innovate with the ballet vocabulary from the West.  These attempts vary between individuals."

《黃河》Yellow River
圖片由中芭提供 Photo provided by National Ballet of China

 

而至於馮英自己,則對有關生命領悟的主題感受更深,2015年首演的《鶴魂》就是向年輕生命的致敬。當時汶川大地震,一批年輕人自覺到災區做義工的故事觸動了馮英,她想起了朱哲琴那首《一個真實的故事》,想起了與丹頂鶴從小相伴,後來為了救鶴而滑進沼澤的徐秀娟。為了創作舞作,馮英帶著團隊去黑龍江的濕地采風,她在鶴的身姿上看到了芭蕾舞者優雅的影子,也想起了鶴這一符號與中國文化深層的連結。但《鶴魂》,更多的是對著年輕人喃喃訴說,那裡面有青春的歌唱,也有生命消逝的惆悵。

 

For herself, Feng Ying has been deeply moved by the teachings of life.  The Crane Whisperer, which premièred in 2015, is a salute to the young.  During the Wenchuan earthquake, a group of young people volunteered to help in the disaster area.  This touched Feng Ying and reminded her of Zhu Zhe-qin’s (Dadawa’s) song, A True Story; Xu Xiu-juan, the young lady described in the song, grew up with red-crowned cranes and she falls into a swamp when trying to save them.  For the ballet’s sake, Feng Ying led her team to Heilongjiang to collect the region’s customs and folk songs.  She found the elegance of ballet in the crane’s movements and was reminded of the cultural symbol that was lying deep within Chinese culture that the crane carries.  However, The Crane Whisperer is more than just whispers to the young, a youthful chant, as well as sentiment for the loss of lives.